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Selected References for
an Introduction to
the Structure & Making of Beowulf

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ÆLFRED, (King)
King Ælfred of Wessex. King Alfred's Boethius. John W. Sedgefield, ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1899.

AMOS
Amos, Ashley Crandell. Linguistic Means of Determining the Dates of Old English Literary Texts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Medieval Academy of America, 1980.

ANAND
Anand, Subhash. Story as Theology: an interpretative study of five episodes from the Mahábhárata. New Delhi: Intercultural Publications, 1996.

ANDREAS
Brooks, Kenneth R., ed. Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles. Oxford: Clarendon, 1961.

BEDE
Colgrave, B. & R.A.B. Mynors, eds. Bede's Eccesiastical History of the English People. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 1969.

BHAGAVAD-GITA
Van Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus, ed. The Bhágavadgítá in the Mahábhárata: text and translation. [Sanskrit & English] Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

BJORK & OBERMEIER
Bjork, Robert E. & Anita Obermeier. 'Date, Provenance, Author, Audiences'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

BLICKLING HOMILIES
Morris, R., Rev., ed. The Blickling Homilies of the Tenth Century: from the Marquis of Lothian's unique MS. A.D. 971. EETS 58, 63, 73. London: The Early English Text Society, 1874-80.

BLISS
Bliss, Alan J. The Metre of Beowulf. Oxford: Blackwell, 1958.

BLOCKLEY
Blockley, Mary. Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: where clauses begin. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

BONJOUR
Bonjour, Adrien. Twelve "Beowulf" Papers 1940-1960. Neuchâtel (Switzerland): Droz, 1962.

BOYLE
Boyle, Leonard, O.P. 'The Nowell Codex and the Dating of Beowulf'. in The Dating of 'Beowulf'. ed. C. Chase. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981.

BRANDL
Brandl, Alois. 'Das Beowulfepos und die mercische Königskrisis um 700'. Forschungen und Fortschritte 12 (1936). [trans. as 'The Beowulf Epic and the Crisis in the Mercian Dynasty about the Year 700 A.D.' Research and Progress 2]

BRODEUR
Brodeur, Arthur G. 'Beowulf: One Poem or Three?'. in Medieval Literature and Folklore Studies: essays in honor of Francis Lee Utley. J. Mandel & B.A. Rosenberg, eds. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1970.

BROWN
Brown, Michelle P. A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600. London & Toronto: The British Library & University of Toronto Press, 1990.

BRUCE-MITFORD
Bruce-Mitford, R.L.S. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: a handbook. London: The British Museum, 1968.

CAMERON et al.
Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, & Gregory Waite, with Sharon Butler & Antonette DiPaolo Healey. 'A Reconsideration of the Language of Beowulf'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

CAMPBELL
Campbell, Alistair. Old English Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

CHAMBERS
Chambers, Raymond W. Beowulf: an introduction to the study of the poem with a discussion of the stories of Offa and Finn. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 1921 (2nd rev. ed., 1932).

CHANCE
Chance (Nitzsche), Jane. 'The Structural Unity of Beowulf : the problem of Grendel's mother'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

CHERNISS
Cherniss, Michael D. Ingeld and Christ: heroic concepts and values in Old English Christian Poetry. The Hague: Mouton, 1972.

CLARK
Clark, George. 'The Hero and the Theme'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

CLEMENT
Clement, Richard W. 'Codicological Consideration in the Beowulf Manuscript'. Essays in Medieval Studies 1 (1984). [also available online]

CLEMOES
Clemoes, Peter. 'Style as the Criterion for Dating the Composition of Beowulf'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

COOK
Cook, Albert S. 'The Possible Begetter of the OE Beowulf and Widsith'. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 25 (1921-22).

COTTON VITELLIUS A.xv PROSE TEXTS
Rypins, Stanley, ed. Three Old English Prose Texts in MS. Cotton Vitellius A xv. OS. 161. London: Early English Text Society, 1924 (for 1921).

CREED
Creed, Robert Payson. 'The Making of an Anglo-Saxon Poem'. English Literary History 26 (1959). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the Study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Karl, eds. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1968.]
-------. 'Sutton Hoo and the Recording of Beowulf'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992b.

DOANE
Doane, A.N. 'Editing Old English Oral/Written Texts: problems of method (with an illustrative edition of Charm 4, Wið Færstice)'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

DREAM OF THE ROOD
Swanton, Michael, ed. The Dream of the Rood. Exeter Medieval English Texts & Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1987 (rev. ed.) [1st ed., Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1970]

DRONKE
Dronke, Ursula. 'Beowulf and Ragnarök.' Saga-Book of the Viking Society 17 (1968). [reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]
-------. 'Pagan beliefs and Christian impact: the contribution of Eddic Studies'. in Viking Revaluations: Viking Society Centenary Symposium. A. Faulkes & R. Perkins, eds. London: Viking Society for Northern Research, 1993. [reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]

DuBOIS
DuBois, Thomas A. Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

DUMÉZIL
Dumézil, Georges. Mythe et épopée. I. L'idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européens; II. Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi; III. Histoires romaines. 3 vols. Paris: Gallimard, 1968, 1971, 1973. [rev. ed. reprinted in 1 vol., Paris: Gallimard, 1995].

DUMVILLE
Dumville, David N. 'English Square minuscule script: the background and earliest phases'. Anglo-Saxon England 16 (1987).
-------. 'Beowulf come lately: some notes on the palaeography of the Nowell Codex'. Archiv 225 (1988).

EARLE
Earle, John, ed. The Deeds of Beowulf: an English epic of the eighth century done into modern prose. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892.

EDDA, ELDER
Jónsson, Finnur, ed. Sæmundar-Edda. [Old Icelandic only] Reykjavík: Sigurður Kristjánsson, 1905.

EVANS
Evans, Stephen S. Lords of Battle: image and reality of the comitatus in dark-age Britain. Woodbridge (Suffolk, England): Boydell, 1997.

FLOOD
Flood, Gavin. An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FOLEY
Foley, John Miles. Traditional Oral Epic: 'Beowulf', the 'Odyssey' and the Serbo-Croatian Return Song. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
-------. Immanent Art: from structure to meaning in traditional oral epic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

FÖRSTER
Förster, Max. Die Beowulf-Handschrift. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften auf Leipzig, Philologisch-historische Klasse 71 (1919).

FRANK
Frank, Roberta. 'Skaldic Verse and the Date of Beowulf'. in The Dating of 'Beowulf'. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981. [2nd ed., 1997]
-------. 'The Beowulf Poet's Sense of History'. in The Wisdom of Poetry: essays in early English literature in honor of Morton W. Bloomfield. Larry D. Benson & Siegfried Wenzel, eds. Kalamazoo (Michigan): Medieval Institute Publications, 1982.
-------. 'Did Anglo-Saxon Audiences have a Skaldic Tooth?' in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.
-------. 'King Cnut in the verse of his skalds'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

FULK
Fulk, Robert D. 'Review Article: Dating Beowulf to the Viking Age'. Philological Quarterly 61 (1982).
-------. A History of Old English Meter. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

GERRITSEN
Gerritsen, Johan. 'British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv--a Supplementary Description'. English Studies 69 (1988).
-------. 'Emending Beowulf 2253 - Some Matters of Principle: with a supplement on 389-90, 1372 & 240'. Neuphilologus 73 (1989a).
-------. 'A Reply to Dr. Kiernan's "Footnote"'. English Studies 72 (1991).

GNEUSS
Gneuss, Helmut. Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a list of manuscripts and manuscript fragments written or owned in England up to 1100. Tempe (Arizona): Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001.

GOLDSMITH
Goldsmith, Margaret E. 'The Christian Perspective in Beowulf'. Comparative Literature 14 (1962)[reprinted in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism.  Lewis E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: Uni. of Notre Dame Press, 1963.]

GRANT
Grant, Paula, ed. Aldfrith's Beowulf. [English trans. only] Felinfach (Ceredigion [Dyfed], Wales): Llanerch Publishers, 1995.

GREENE
Greene, Thomas M. The Descent from Heaven: a study in epic continuity. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 1963.
-------. 'The Natural Tears of Epic'. in Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: the poetics of community. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus & Susanne Wofford, eds. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

GRUNDTVIG
Grundtvig, Nicolas Frederic Severin. 'Om Bjovulfs Drape eller det af Hr. Etatsraad Thorkelin 1815 udgivne angelsachsiske Digt'. Danne-Virke, et Tids-Skrift 2 (1817).
-------, ed. Bjowulf's Drape: Et Gothisk Helte-Digt fra Angulus-Tungen fordansket af Nik. [Danish trans. only] Copenhagen: Seidelin, 1820.

HALAMA
Halama, Alta Cools. 'Flytes of Fancy: Boasting and Boasters from Beowulf to Gangsta Rap'. Essays in Medieval Studies 13 (1996). [also available online at: http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol13/halama.html]

HILL
Hill, John M. 'Hrothgar's Noble Rule: Love and the Great Legislator'. in Social Approaches to Viking Studies. Ross Samson, ed. Glasgow: Cruithne, 1991.

HILTEBEITEL
Hiltebeitel, Alf. Rethinking the Mahabharata: a reader's guide to the education of the dharma king. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002 [Indian ed.] (originally published: Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001).

HINES
Hines, J. The Scandinavian Character of Anglian England in the pre-Viking Period. (British Series, 124) Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1984.

HROLFS SAGA KRAKA
Slay, Desmond, ed. The manuscripts of Hrólfs saga kraka. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1960.

IRVING
Irving, Edward B., Jr. 'The Nature of Christianity in Beowulf'. Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1984).
-------. Rereading Beowulf. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

JACOBS
Jacobs, Nicholas. 'Anglo-Danish Relations, Poetic Archaism, and the Date of Beowulf'. Poetica (Tokyo) 8 (1977).

JUDITH
Griffith, Mark, ed. Judith. Exeter Medieval Texts & Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997.

KABIR
Kabir, Ananya Jahanara. 'Towards a Contra-Modern Aesthetics: reading the Old English "Andreas" against an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe'. paper given at the 'Transformations in Christianity: representations & interpretations in the arts, 1000-2000 AD' conference held by the Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen, 2000. [available online]

KALUZA
Kaluza, Max. 'Zur Betonungs- and Verslehre des Altenglischen'. in Festschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstage Oskar Schade. Königsberg: Hartung, 1896.

KEMBLE
Kemble, John Mitchell, ed. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, The Traveller's Song, and the Battle of Finnesburh. London: W. Pickering, 1835-7 (2nd ed.).

KER, N.R.
Ker, N.R. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

KEYNES
Keynes, Simon. 'Cnut's earls'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

KIERNAN
Kiernan, Kevin. Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1981 (2nd ed., Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996).
-------. 'The State of the Beowulf Manuscript, 1882-1983'. Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1983). [reprinted in 2nd ed. of Beowulf & the Beowulf Manuscript. (see above entry)]
-------. 'A Long Footnote for J. Gerritsen's 'Supplementary' Description of BL Cotton MS Vitellius A. XV'. English Studies  72 (1991).
-------, ed. et al. Electronic Beowulf. [2 CD-ROMs] London & Ann Arbor (Michigan): The British Library and The University of Michigan Press, 1999. [Ver. 2.0, 2003]

KIRBY
Kirby, D.P. The Earliest English Kings. London: Routledge, 1991.

KLAEBER
Klaeber, Frederick. 'Die christlichen Elemente im Beowulf'. Anglia 35 & 36 (1911-12). reprinted in English translation by Paul Battles as The Christian Elements in Beowulf. Kalamazoo: The Medieval Institute/Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies, Western Michigan University (=Old English Newsletter Subsidia 29), 2000.
-------, ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath, 1950 (3rd ed. with 1st & 2nd supplements).

KÖBERL
Köberl, Johann. The Indeterminacy of Beowulf. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 2002.

LAPIDGE
Lapidge, Michael. 'Beowulf, Aldhelm, the Liber monstrorum and Wessex'. Studi Medievali 3rd ser. 23 (1982).

LAWSON
Lawson, Michael Kenneth. Cnut: the Danes in England in the early eleventh century. London: Longman, 1993.

LEISI
Leisi, Ernst. 'Gold und Manneswert im Beowulf'. Anglia 71 (1953).

LORD
Lord, Albert Bates. Epic Singers and Oral Tradition. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1991.

LUKMAN
Lukman, Niels Clausen. Skjoldunge und Skilfinge. Hunnen- und Heruler-könige in Ostnordischer Überlieferung. Classica et mediaevalia, dissertationes III. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag, 1943.

MAGOUN
Magoun, Francis P., Jr. 'The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry'. Speculum 28 (1953). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Kahrl, eds. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1968.]
-------. 'Béowulf A': a Folk Variant'. ARV: Tidskrift för Nordisk Folkminnesforskning 25 (1958).
-------. 'Béowulf B': a Folk-Poem on Béowulf's Death'. in Early English and Norse Studies: Presented to Hugh Smith in Honor of His Sixtieth Birthday. A. Brown & P. Foote, eds. London: Methuen, 1963.

MALONE
Malone, Kemp, ed. The Nowell Codex. Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, XII. Copenhagen, Baltimore & London: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1963.

MITCHELL
Mitchell, Bruce. Old English Syntax. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

MÜLLENHOFF
Müllenhoff, Karl. 'Die innere Geschichte des Beowulfs'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Alterum und deutsche Literatur 14 (1869).

MURPHY
Murphy, G. Ronald, S.J. The Saxon Savior: the transformation of the Gospel in the ninth-century Heliand. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

MURRAY
Murray, Alexander Callander. 'Beowulf, the Danish Invasions, and Royal Genealogy'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd. ed., 1997).

NAGY
Nagy, Gregory. 'Epic as Genre'. in Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: the poetics of community. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus & Susanne Wofford, eds. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

NEWTON
Newton, Sam. The Origins of Beowulf and the pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge (Suffolk): The Boydell Press, 1993.

NORTH
North, Richard. Heathen Gods in Old English Literature. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

O'DONNELL
O'Donnell, Daniel Paul. Manuscript Variation in Multiple Recension Old English Poetic Texts: the Technical Problem and Poetic Art. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Yale University, 1996a. Supervisor: Fred C. Robinson. Electronic Reprint, Version 2.0. [available online as Adobe .PDF].

O'KEEFFE
O'Brien O'Keeffe, Katherine. Visible Song: Transitional Literacy in Old English Verse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

O'LOUGHLIN
O'Loughlin, J.L.N. 'Sutton Hoo: the evidence of the documents'. Medieval Archaeology 8 (1964).

ONG
Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: the technologizing of the word. London: Metheun, 1982 (reprinted, London: Routledge, 1988).

ORCHARD
Orchard, Andy. Pride and Prodigies: studies in the monsters of the Beowulf-manuscript. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1985. [rev. ed., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995].
-------. 'Oral tradition'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
-------. A Critical Companion to Beowulf. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2003.

OSBORN
Osborn, Marijane. 'The Great Feud: scriptural history and strife in Beowulf'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 93 (1978). [reprinted in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000]

PAGE
Page, Raymond Ian. 'The Audience of Beowulf and the Vikings'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

PARRY
Parry, Milman. 'Whole Formulaic Verses in Greek and Southslavic Heroic Song'. Transactions of the American Philological Association 64 (1933).

PARTHASARATHY
Parthasarathy, R. 'Indian Oral Traditions'. in Teaching Oral Traditions. John Miles Foley, ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.

PAYNE
Payne, F. Anne. 'The Danes' Prayers to the "Gastbona" in Beowulf'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 80 (1979).

PETER
Peter, Isiah Sundarum. The Anglo-Saxon Epic as exemplified by Beowulf in the light of the Indian Epic the Rámáyana. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1930.

PHILLPOTTS
Phillpotts, (Dame) Bertha S. 'Wyrd and Providence in Anglo-Saxon Thought'. Essays and Studies 13 (1928). [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]

PRESCOTT
Prescott, Andrew. 'The Electronic Beowulf and Digital Restoration'. Literary and Linguistic Computing 12 (1997). [also available online]
-------. '"Their Present Miserable State of Cremation": the Restoration of the Cotton Library'. in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy. C.J. Wright, ed. London: British Library Publications, 1997. [also available online]

RG-VEDA
Rgveda-Samhita [Sanskrit only]. Swami Jagadishvarananda Saraswati, ed. New Delhi: Vijay Kumar Govindaram Hasanand, 1999.

ROBINSON
Robinson, Fred C. Beowulf and the Appositive Style. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.

ROSE
Rose, Gregory F. 'A Look Back at Kevin S. Kiernan's Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript - the Kiernan Theory revisited: Beowulf at the Court of Cnut?'. Envoi 6.2 (1997). [also available online]

RUSSELL
Russell, James C. The Germanization of Early Medieval Christianity: a sociohistorical approach to religious transformation. New York: Oxford Uni. Press, 1994.

RUSSOM
Russom, Geoffrey. 'Artful Avoidance of the Useful Phrase in Beowulf, The Battle of Maldon, and Fates of the Apostles'. Studies in Philology 75 (1978). [reprinted in Interpretations of   Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]

SARRAZIN
Sarrazin, Gregor. 'Beowulf und Kynewulf'. Anglia 9 (1886).

SAWYER
Sawyer, Peter. 'Cnut's Scandinavian empire'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

SAX
Sax, William S. 'Worshiping Epic Villians: a Kaurava cult in the central Himalayas'. in Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: the poetics of community. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus & Susanne Wofford, eds. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

SCHNEIDER
Schneider, Karl. Sophia Lectures on Beowulf. Shoichi Watanabe & Norio Tsuchiya, eds. Tokyo: Japan Science Society, 1986.

SCHÜCKING (X)
Schücking, Levin Ludwig. Beowulfs Rückkehr: eine kritische Studie. Studien zur englischen Philologie, 21. Halle: Verlag von Max Niemeyer, 1905.
-------. 'Wann entstand der Beowulf? Glossen, Zweifel und Fragen'. Beträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 42 (1917).
-------. 'Das Königsideal im Beowulf'. Modern Humanities Research Bulletin 3 (1929). [reprinted in translation as 'The Ideal of Kingship in Beowulf'. in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism. L.E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame (Indiana): Notre Dame University Press, 1963.]

SHIPPEY
Shippey, Thomas A. 'Structure and Unity'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

SIEVERS
Sievers, Eduard. 'Die Heimat des Beowulfsdichters'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 11 (1886).
-------. Altergermanische Metrik. Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1893.
-------. 'Old Germanic Metrics and Old English Metrics'. in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. ed. J.B. Bessinger, Jr. & S.J. Kahrl. Hamden (Connecticut): Archon Books, 1968. [trans. of article in Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie II.2 (1905)].

SISAM
Sisam, Kenneth. 'The Beowulf Manuscript'. Modern Language Review 11 (1916). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'The Compilation of the Beowulf Manuscript'. The Review of English Studies 10 (1934). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'The Authority of Old English Poetical Manuscripts'. The Review of English Studies 22 (1946). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'Dialect Origins of the Earlier Old English Verse'. in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.

SLADE
Slade, Benjamin. '...þrym gefrunon, ...helle gemundon: Indogermanic shruti and Christian smriti in the Epistemology of Beowulf'. paper given at 38th International Congress on Medieval Studies. Kalamazoo (Michigan), 2003. [available online here]

STANLEY
Stanley, Eric G. 'Hæthenra Hyht in Beowulf'. in Studies in Old English Literature. S.B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.

STJERNA
Stjerna, Knut. Essays on Questions Connected with the Old English Poem Beowulf. trans. from Swedish by J.R. Clark Hall. Viking Club extra series, vol. III. published for the Viking Club : Society for Northern Research (Uni. of London, King's College) - Coventry: Curtis & Beamish (Ltd.), 1912.

STOCKWELL & MINKOVA
Stockwell, Robert P. & Donka Minkova. 'Prosody.' in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

STUHMILLER
Stuhmiller, Jacqueline. 'On the identity of the eotenas'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 100 (1999).

TACITUS
Tacitus. Tacitus: Dialogus - Agricola - Germania. W. Peterson & M. Hutton, eds. & trans. London & Cambridge, Mass.: Heinemann & Harvard Uni. Press, 1914.

TAYLOR
Taylor, Paul Beekman. Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998. -------. 'Hroðgar and the Friends of Yng'. in Sharing Story (see above). [revision of 'The Epithetical Style of Beowulf'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 91 (1990).]

TAYLOR & SALUS
Taylor, Paul Beekman & P.H. Salus. 'Old English ALF WALDA'. Neophilologus 66 (1982).

THORKELIN
Thorkelin, Grímur Jónsson, ed. Beowulf. De Danorum rebus gestis secul. III IV. Poëma danicum dialecto anglo-saxonica. Ex bibliotheca Cottoniana Musaei britannici edidit versione lat. et indicibus auxit Grim. Johnson Thorkelin. Copenhagen: Rangel, 1815.

TOLKIEN
Tolkien, J.R.R. 'Beowulf : the Monsters and the Critics'. Proceedings of the British Academy 22 (1936).

TOWNEND
Townend, Matthew. Language and History in Viking Age England: linguistic relations between speakers of Old Norse and Old English. University of York - Studies in the Early Middle Ages, 6. Turnhout (Belgium): Brepols, 2002.

TRIPP
Tripp, Raymond P., Jr. More About the Fight with the Dragon: Beowulf 2208b-3182, commentary, edition and translation. Lanham (Maryland): University Book Press of America, 1983.
-------. 'Beowulf 1314a: The Hero as Alfwalda, "Ruler of Elves"'. Neophilologus 70 (1986).

VISION OF ST. PAUL
Healey, Antonette DiPaolo, ed. The Old English Vision of St. Paul. Speculum Anniversary Monograph, 2. Cambridge (Massachusetts): The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1978.

WESTPHALEN
Westphalen, Tilman. Beowulf 3150-55: Textkritik und Editionsgeschichte. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1967.

WHITELOCK
Whitelock, Dorothy. The Audience of 'Beowulf'. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951.

WIDSITH
Chambers, Raymond Wilson, ed. Widsith: a study in Old English Heroic Legend. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912.

WIKANDER
Wikander, Stig. 'Pándava-sagan och Mahábháratas mystika forutsattningar'. Religion och Bibel 6 (1947).

WOOLF
Woolf, Henry Bosley. Old Germanic Principles of Name-Giving. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1939.

ZUPITZA
Zupitza, Julius (with Norman Davis), eds. Beowulf: reproduced in facsimile from the unique manuscript British Museum MS. Cotton Vitellius A. xv with a transliteration and notes by Julius Zupitza. new reproduction & intro. by Norman Davis. Early English Text Society, 245 (1st ed.=EETS 77). London: Early English Text Society, 1959 (2nd ed.)