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References
[if an author NAME is cited without a date, citation corresponds to article(s) under author NAME ; if year is cited, then refer to the work of that date]
[when an author appears as both NAME and NAME (X) : all citations refer to NAME , unless followed by a year in brackets, in which case it refers to the document under NAME (X) corresponding to that date]



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLES
ed. Earle, John & Charles Plummer. Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel: with supplementary extracts from the others, a revised text. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892 (rev. ed. 1952, with a bibliographical note by Dorothy Whitelock).
ed. Smith, A.H. The Parker Chronicle (832-900). London: Methuen, 1966.

ANGLO-SAXON POETIC RECORDS
ed. Krapp, George Philip & Elliott van Kirk Dobbie. The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records: a collective edition. Vols. I-VI. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931-53.

AAIJ
Aaij, Michel. 'Beowulf and the Reign of Cnut'. Maþeliende 5.3 (Spring 1998). [available online @ http://virtual.park.uga.edu/~mathelie/mathv3.html#beowulf]

ABINGDON
ed. Stevenson, J. Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon (Chronicle of Abingdon Monastery). London: Longman Brown Green Longmans and Roberts, 1858.

ABRAMS
Abrams, Lesley. 'The conversion of the Danelaw'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

ACKER
Acker, Paul. Revising Oral Theory: formulaic composition in Old English and Old Icelandic Verse. New York: Garland, 1997.

ACKROYD
Ackroyd, Peter. Albion: the Origins of the English Imagination. London: Chatto & Windus, 2002.

ÆLFRED, (King)
King Ælfred of Wessex. King Alfred's Boethius. [with 'prose Boethius'] John W. Sedgefield, ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1899.
-------. Alfred's Metres of Boethius. Bill Griffiths, ed. Pinner (Middlesex, England): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1991.
-------. King Alfred's Version of St. Augustine's Soliloquies. Thomas A. Carnicelli, ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1969. [reprinted, San Jose (California), New York, Lincoln (Nebraska) & Shanghai (China): toExcel, 1999].

ÆLFRIC
Ælfric. Lives of Three English Saints. G.I. Needham, ed. London: Methuen, 1966.

ÆTHELWEARD
ed. & trans. Campbell, A. Chronicon Æthelweardi, or, The Chronicle of Æthelweard. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1962.

ALDHELM
see under Orchard below.

ALLEN
Allen, Cynthia. 'Old English and the Syntactician: some remarks and a syntactician's guide to editions of the works of Ælfric'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.

AL-TABARI
al-Tabari. Annales. Prima series. J. Barth, ed. Leiden, 1964.

AMOS
Amos, Ashley Crandell. Linguistic Means of Determining the Dates of Old English Literary Texts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Medieval Academy of America, 1980.

ANDERSON
Anderson, Carl Edlund. Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), 2000. available online at http://www.carlaz.com/phd/

ANDERSSON
Andersson, Theodore M. 'Tradition and Design in Beowulf'. in Old English Literature in Context: ten essays. John D. Niles, ed. Cambridge: Brewer, 1980.
-------. 'The Viking Policy of Ethelred the Unready'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.
-------. 'Sources and Analogues'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

ANDREAS
ed. Brooks, Kenneth R. Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles. Oxford: Clarendon, 1961.

ANTONSEN
Antonsen, Elmer H. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1975.
-------. Runes and Germanic Linguistics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2002.

ASSER
ed. Keyes, Simon & Michael Lapidge. Alfred the Great: Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources. London: Penguin, 1983.

BAETKE
Baetke, Walter. Das Heilige im Germanischen. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1942.
-------. Die Aufnahme des Christentums durch die Germanen: ein Beitrag zur Frage der Germanisierung des Christentums. special ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1962.

BABYLONIAN TALMUD
ed. Epstein, Isidore & Maurice Simon. The Babylonian Talmud. 18 vol. London, 1961.

BACHLECHNER
Bachlechner, Joseph. 'Die Merovinge in Beowulf'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur 7 (1849).

BAGBY et al.
Bagby, Benjamin & Barbara Thornton (directors & performers), with Lena Susanne Norin & Elizabeth Gaver (performers) [=Sequentia]. EDDA: myths from medieval Iceland. [Old Norse recordings; 1 audio/music CD]. Recorded in Skálholt, Iceland: 5-9 November 1996. Deutsche Harmonia Mundi/BMG Entertainment, 1999.

BAKER
Baker, Peter S. 'Old English and computing: a guided tour'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

BALL
Ball, C. 'Incge Beow. 2577'. Anglia 78 (1960).

BAMMESBERGER
Bammesberger, Alfred. Beiträge zu einem etymologischen Wörterbuch des Altenglischen: Berichtigungen und Nachträge zum Altenglischen etymologischen Wörterbuch von Ferdinand Holthausen. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, 1979.
-------. 'Five Beowulf Notes'. in Words, Texts, and Manuscripts: studies in Anglo-Saxon Culture presented to Helmut Gneuss on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Michael Korhammer, ed. Cambridge, 1992a.
-------. 'The Place of English in Germanic and Indo-European'. in The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 1: the beginnings to 1066. Richard M. Hogg, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992b.

BARNEY
Barney, Stephen A. Word-Hoard. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 1977.
-------. 'Special Approaches: The Words'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

BARNOUW
Barnouw, Adriaan J. Textkritische Untersuchenungen nach dem Gebrauch des bestimmten Artikels und des schwachen Adjektivs in der altenglischen Poesie. Ph.D. diss., Leyden, 1902.

BARRETT & GARROD
Barrett, W.H. & R.P. Garrod. East Anglian Folklore and other tales. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976.

BAUGH & CABLE
Baugh, Albert C. with Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge, 1993 (4th rev. ed. by Thomas Cable).

BAUM
Baum, Paull F. 'The Beowulf Poet'. Philological Quarterly 39 (1960).

BECK
Beck, Heinrich. Das Ebersignum im Germanischen: ein Beitrag zur germanischen Tier-Symbolik. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1965.

BEDE (Venerable)
ed. & trans. Colgrave, B. and R.A.B. Mynors. Bede's Eccesiastical History of the English People. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 1969.
ed. Garforth, F.W. Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica: a selection. [Latin excerpts] London: Bell, 1967. [reprinted, Wauconda (Illinois): Bolchazy-Carducci, 1988]
ed. & trans. Miller, Thomas. The Old English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. London: The Early English Text Society (95), 1890.

BEEKES
Beekes, Robert S.P. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: an introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995.

BEHMER
Behmer, Elis. Das zweischneidige Schwert der germanischen Völkerwanderungszeit. Stockholm: Akademisk Avhandlung Stockholms Högskola, 1939.

BENNETT
Bennett, William H. 'Prosodic features in Proto-Germanic'. in Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic. Frans van Coetsem & Herbert L. Kufner, eds. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1972.

BENSON
Benson, Larry D. 'The Pagan Coloring of Beowulf '. in Old English Poetry: fifteen essays. R.P. Creed, ed. Providence (Rhode Island): Brown University Press, 1967. [reprinted in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000.]

BERENDSOHN
Berendsohn, Walter A. Zur Vorgeschichte des Beowulf. Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard, 1935.

BESSINGER
Bessinger, Jess B., Jr. 'Maldon and Óláfsdrápa : a historical caveat'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.
-------. 'Homage to Cædmon and Others: a Beowulfian Praise Song'. in Old English Studies in Honour of John C. Pope. Robert B. Burlin & Edward B. Irving, Jr., eds. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.
-------. 'Special Approaches: Forgeries and Facsimiles: Paleography Without Tears'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

BETHURUM
Bethurum, Dorothy. 'Episcopal Magnificence in the Eleventh Century'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Stanley B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.

BIDDLE
Biddle, Martin. 'Towns'. in The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. David Wilson, ed. London: Methuen, 1976.

BIDDLE & KJØLBYE-BIDDLE
Biddle, Martin & Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle. 'Repton and the "great heathen army"'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

BIDDULPH
Biddulph, Joseph. Old Danish of the Old Danelaw. [amplified edition] Pontypridd (Wales): Cyhoeddwr Joseph Biddulph Publisher, 2003.

BIGGAM
Biggam, Carole. 'Hæwenhnydele: an Anglo-Saxon medicinal plant'. Botanical Journal of Scotland 46.4 (1994).
-------. Blue in Old English. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997.

BIGGS
Biggs, Frederick M. 'Beowulf and some fictions of the Geatish succession'. Anglo-Saxon England 32(2003).

BIRKHAN
Birkhan, Helmut. Germanen und Kelten bis zum Ausgang der Römerzeit: der Aussagewert von Wörtern und Sachen für die frühesten keltisch-germanischen Kulturbeziehungen. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1970.

BJORK & OBERMEIER
Bjork, Robert E. and Anita Obermeier. 'Date, Provenance, Author, Audiences'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

BJÖRKMAN
Björkman, Erik. 'Béow, Béaw und Béowulf'. Englische Studien 52 (1918).

BLACKBURN
Blackburn, F.A. 'The Christian Coloring in the Beowulf'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 12 (1897). [reprinted in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism.  Lewis E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: Uni. of Notre Dame Press, 1963.]

BLAIR
Blair, Peter Hunter. The World of Bede. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970.

BLICKLING HOMILIES
ed. & trans. Morris, R., Rev. The Blickling Homilies of the Tenth Century: from the Marquis of Lothian's unique MS. A.D. 971. EETS 58, 63, 73. London: The Early English Text Society, 1874-80.

BLISS
Bliss, Alan J. The Metre of Beowulf. Oxford: Blackwell, 1958.

BLISS (X)
Bliss, Alan J. An Introduction to Old English Metre. Oxford: Blackwell, 1962 (rev. ed.). [Reprinted with an introduction by Daniel Donoghue, Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York (=Old English Newsletter Subsidia 20), 1993.]
-------. 'Single Half-Lines in Old English Poetry'. Notes and Queries, n.s. 18 (1971).
-------. ' Beowulf, Lines 3074-3075'. in J.R.R. Tolkien: Scholar and Storyteller. Mary Salu & Robert T. Farrell, eds. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1979.
-------. The Scansion of Beowulf. Kalamazoo: The Medieval Institute/Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies, Western Michigan University (=Old English Newsletter Subsidia 22), 1995.

BLOCKLEY
Blockley, Mary. Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: where clauses begin. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

BLOCKLEY (X)
Blockley, Mary. 'Addenda and Corrigenda to N.R. Ker's "A Supplement to Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon"'. Notes & Queries ns. 29 (1982) [reprinted with rev. in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994 (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001)].

BLOCKLEY & CABLE
Blockley, Mary and Thomas Cable. 'Kuhn's Laws, Old English Poetry, and the New Philology'. in The Beowulf Reader. ed. P. Baker. New York: Garland, 1995.

BLOOMFIELD
Bloomfield, Morton W. 'Patristics and Old English Literature: notes on some poems'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Stanley B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963. [also reprinted in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism. Lewis E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1963]

BOETHIUS
see above under
(King) Ælfred.

BONE
Bone, Peter. 'The Development of Anglo-Saxon Swords from the Fifth to the Eleventh Century'. in Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

(Saint) BONIFACE
ed. & trans. Emerton, Ephraim. The Letters of Saint Boniface. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.

BONJOUR
Bonjour, Adrien. Twelve "Beowulf" Papers 1940-1960. Neuchâtel (Switzerland): Droz, 1962.
-------. 'The Beowulf Poet and the Tragic Muse'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.

BONSER
Bonser, W. The Medical Background of Anglo-Saxon England: A Study in History, Psychology and Folklore. London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1963.

BOSWORTH & TOLLER
Bosworth, Joseph and T. Northcote Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press, 1898 (Toller supplement, 1921).

BOYER
Boyer, Régis. 'Fate as a Deus Otiosus in the Íslendingasögur : a romantic view?'. in Sagnaskemmtun: studies in honour of Hermann Pálsson on his 65th birthday, 26th May 1986. Rudolf Simek, Jónas Kristjánsson & Hans Bekker-Nielsen, eds. Vienna: Hermann Böhlaus, 1986.

BOUTERWEK
Bouterwek, K. 'Das Beowulflied'. Pfeiffer’s Germania 1 (1856).
-------. 'Zur Kritik des Beowulfliedes'. Zeitschrift für Deutsche Altertum und Deutsche Literatur XI (1882).

BOYLE
Boyle, Leonard, O.P. 'The Nowell Codex and the Dating of Beowulf'. in The Dating of 'Beowulf'. ed. C. Chase. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981.

BRADLEY
Bradley, H. 'The Song of the Nine Magic Herbs (Neunkräutersegen)'. Archiv 113 (1904).

BRADY
Brady, Caroline. '"Weapons" in Beowulf : an analysis of the nominal compounds and an evaluation of the Poet's Use of them'. Anglo-Saxon England 8 (1979).
-------. '"Warriors" in Beowulf: an analysis of the nominal compounds and an evaluation of the Poet's Use of them'. Anglo-Saxon England 11 (1983 for 1982).

BRAEGER
Braeger, Peter C. 'Connotations of (Earm) Sceapen: Beowulf ll. 2228-2229 and the Shape-Shifting Dragon'. Essays in Literature 13 (1986).

BRAEKMAN
Braekman, Willy L. 'Notes on Old English Charms'. Neophilologus 64 (1980).

BRANDL
Brandl, Alois. 'Das Beowulfepos und die mercische Königskrisis um 700'. Forschungen und Fortschritte 12 (1936). trans. as 'The Beowulf Epic and the Crisis in the Mercian Dynasty about the Year 700 A.D.' Research and Progress 2.

BRANDT
Brandt, Troels. Danernes Sagnhistorie: Saxos sagn i sagaernes kronologi. Farum (Denmark): Gedevasens Forlag, 2004.

BRAUNE & HELM
eds. Braune, Wilhelm, & Karl Helm. Althochdeutsches Lesebuch. Halle (Saale, Germany): Max Niemeyer, 1928 [6th ed.].

BRELICH
Brelich, Angelo. Gli Eroi Greci: un probleme storico-religioso.   Rome: Edizioni dell 'Ateneo, 1958.

BREMEN, ADAM of
Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Francis J. Tschan, trans. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959 [rev. ed., 2002].

BRIGGS
Briggs, C.S. 'Did They Fall or Were They Pushed? Some Unresolved Questions about Bog Bodies'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

ten BRINK
ten Brink, B. Beowulf, Untersuchungen. Quellen und Forschungen 62. Strassburg: Trüber,1888.

BRODEUR
Brodeur, Arthur Gilchrist. The Art of 'Beowulf'. Berkeley & Los Angeles: Uni. of California Press, 1959.

BRODEUR (X)
Brodeur, Arthur G. 'Beowulf: One Poem or Three?'. in Medieval Literature and Folklore Studies: essays in honor of Francis Lee Utley. J. Mandel & B.A. Rosenberg, eds. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1970.

BROOK
Brook, G.L. 'The Relation between the Textual and the Linguistic Study of Old English'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

BROWN, C.
Brown, Carleton. 'Beowulf and the Blickling Homilies and Some Textual Notes'. Publications of the Modern Language Association 53 (1938).

BROWN
Brown, Michelle P. A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600. London & Toronto: The British Library & University of Toronto Press, 1990.
-------. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts. London: The British Library, 1991.
-------. Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts: A Guide to Technical Terms. London & Los Angeles (California): The British Library & J. Paul Getty Museum, 1994.
-------. The British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts: History and Techniques. London & Toronto: The British Library & University of Toronto Press, 1998.

BROWN, P.
Brown, Phyllis R. 'The Viking Policy of Ethelred: a response'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.

BROWN & LOVETT
Brown, Michelle P. & Patricia Lovett. The Historical Source Book for Scribes. London: The British Library, 1999.

BROWN, T.
Brown, Terry. English Martial Arts. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1997.

BROWN, Th.
Brown, Theo. 'The Black Dog'. Folklore 69 (1958).

BRUCE
Bruce, Alexander M. 'An Education in the Mead-Hall: Beowulf's Lessons for Young Warriors'. The Heroic Age 5 (2001). [available online here].

BRUCE-MITFORD
Bruce-Mitford, R.L.S. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial: a handbook. London: The British Museum, 1968.

BRUCE-MITFORD & BRUCE-MITFORD
Bruce-Mitford, Rupert L.S. and Myrtle. 'The Sutton Hoo Lyre, Beowulf, and the Origins of the Frame Harp'. Antiquity 44 (1970).

BUCK
Buck, Carl Darling. A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.

BUGGE
Bugge, Sophus. 'Spredte iagttagelser vekommende de oldengelske digte om Beowulf og Waldere'. Tidskrift for Philogi og Paedagogik 8 (1868-69).
-------. 'Zum Beowulf'. Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie 4 (1873).
-------.  'Studienüber das Beowulfepos'. Paul und Brauns Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 12 (1887).

CABLE
Cable, Thomas M. The Meter and Melody of Beowulf. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974.
-------. 'Metrical Style as Evidence for the Date of Beowulf'.in The Dating of 'Beowulf'.  C. Chase, ed. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).
-------. 'Special Approaches: Old English Prosody'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. 'Philology: analysis of written records'. in Research Guide on Language Change. E.C. Polomé, ed. Trends in Linguistics - studies and monographs, 48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990.
-------. The English Alliterative Tradition. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

CAIE
Caie, Graham D. 'The Shorter Heroic Verse'. in Companion to Old English Poetry. Henk Aertsen & Rolf H. Bremmer, Jr., eds. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Press, 1994.

CAIN
Cain, Christopher M. 'Beowulf, the Old Testament, and the regula fidei'. Renascence: essays on values in literature 49 (1997).

CAMERON et al.
Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, and Gregory Waite with Sharon Butler and Antonette DiPaolo Healey. 'A Reconsideration of the Language of Beowulf'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

CAMPBELL
Campbell, Alistair. Old English Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

CAMPBELL, J.
Campbell, James. 'The Impact of the Sutton Hoo Discovery on the Study of Anglo-Saxon History'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

CARVER
Carver, Martin. 'The Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Sutton Hoo: an interim report'. in The Age of Sutton Hoo. ed. M. Carver. Woodbridge(Suffolk): The Boydell Press, 1992.
-------. Sutton Hoo: Burial Ground of Kings? London & Philadelphia: The British Museum & University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

CAVILL
Cavill, P. 'The manuscripts of Cædmon's Hymn'. Anglia 118 (2000).

CÆDMON'S SONG/HYMN
see below under Minor Poems, Dobbie (ed.)

CHADWICK, H.M.
Chadwick, H. Munro. The Heroic Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912.

CHADWICK, N.
Chadwick, Nora K. 'Norse Ghosts: a study in the draugr and the haugbúi'. Folk-Lore 57 (1946).
-------. 'The Monsters and Beowulf'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

CHAMBERS
ed. Chambers, Raymond W. Beowulf. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933 (3rd ed.).

CHAMBERS, 'Intro'
Chambers, Raymond W. Beowulf: an introduction to the study of the poem with a discussion of the stories of Offa and Finn. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 1921 (2nd rev. ed., 1932).

CHANCE
Chance (Nitzsche), Jane. 'The Structural Unity of Beowulf : the problem of Grendel's mother'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

CHANEY
Chaney, W.A. 'Grendel and the gifstol: a legal view of monsters'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 77 (1962).

CHASE
Colin, Chase. 'Opinions on the Date of Beowulf'. in The Dating of 'Beowulf'. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

CHAUCER STUDIOS
see Rendall below.

CHERNISS
Cherniss, Michael D. Ingeld and Christ: heroic concepts and values in Old English Christian Poetry. The Hague: Mouton, 1972.

CHICKERING
ed. Chickering, Howell D., Jr. Beowulf: a dual-language edition. New York: Anchor (Doubleday), 1977.

CHICKERING (X)
Chickering, Howell D., Jr. 'Teaching Beowulf in Old English to Undergraduates - I'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

CHILD
Child, C.G. 'Beowulf 30, 53, 1323, 2957'. Modern Language Notes 21 (1906).

CLARK
Clark, George. 'Beowulf and Bear's Son in the Vishnu Purana'. Philological Quarterly 43.1 (1964).
-------. 'Beowulf's Armor'. Journal of English Literary History 32 (1965).
-------. Beowulf. Boston: Twayne, 1990.
-------. 'Maldon: History, Poetry, and Truth'. in De Gustibus: Essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.
-------. 'The Hero and the Theme'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

CLARK, C.
Clark, Cecily. 'Onomastics'. in The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 1: the beginnings to 1066. Richard M. Hogg, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

CLARK HALL
ed. Clark Hall, J.R. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1894 (4th ed. 1960). supplement by H.D. Meritt. [reprinted, Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1984 (Medieval Academy reprints for teaching, 14)]

CLEMENT
Clement, Richard W. 'Codicological Consideration in the Beowulf Manuscript'. Essays in Medieval Studies 1 (1984). [also available online at: http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol1/clement.html]

CLEMOES
Clemoes, Peter. 'History of the Manuscript'. & 'Punctuation'. in Ælfric's First Series of Catholic Homilies--British Library, Royal 7.C.xii, fols. 4-218. Norman Eliason & Peter Clemoes, eds. Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, 13. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1966 [reprinted with revs., in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994 (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001)].
-------. 'Style as the Criterion for Dating the Composition of Beowulf'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

CLOVER
Clover, Carol J. 'The Germanic Context of the Unferþ Episode'. Speculum 55 (1980).

COCKAYNE
Cockayne, O. Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England. London, 1864-1866.

van COESTSEM
Van Coestem, Frans. 'Grimm's Law: a reappraisal of Grimm's formulation from a present-day perspective'. in The Grimm Brothers and the Germanic Past. Elmer H. Antonsen, ed. with James W. Marchand & Ladislav Zgusta, eds. Amsterdam Studies in the Theory & History of Linguistic Science. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990.

COLLINDER
Collinder, Björn, trans. Beowulf. [Swedish translation] Stockholm: Natur och Kultur, 1954.

COLMAN
Colman, F. 'Old English ie : quid est?'. Lingua 67 (1985).

CONANT
Conant, Jonathan B. 'Runic ALU - a new conjecture'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 72 (1973).

CONNER
Conner, Patrick W. 'Beyond the ASPR: electronic editions of Old English poetry'. in New Approaches to Editing Old English Verse. Sarah Larratt Keefer & Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1998.

COOK
Cook, Albert S. 'The Possible Begetter of the OE Beowulf and Widsith'. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 25 (1921-22).

COSIJN
Cosijn, Pieter J. Notes on 'Beowulf'. ed. & trans. Rolf H. Bremmer Jr, Jan van den Berg & David F. Johnson. Leeds Texts & Monographs, 12. Leeds: Leeds Studies in English & Kindred Languages, University of Leeds, 1991 [reprinting of collected papers].

COTTON VITELLIUS A.xv PROSE TEXTS
ed. Rypins, Stanley. Three Old English Prose Texts in MS. Cotton Vitellius A xv. OS. 161. London: Early English Text Society, 1924 (for 1921).

CRAMP
Cramp, Rosemary. 'Beowulf and archaeology'. Medieval Archaeology 1 (1957).

CRAWFORD
Crawford, S.J. 'Grendel's descent from Cain'. Modern Language Review 23 (1928) & 24 (1929).

CREED
Creed, Robert Payson. 'The Making of an Anglo-Saxon Poem'. English Literary History 26 (1959). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the Study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Karl, eds. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1968.]
-------. 'The Singer Looks at His Sources'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.
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CRÉPIN
Crépin, André. 'La conscience de soi héroïque: l'exemple de Beowulf'. in Genèse de la conscience moderne: études sur le développement de la conscience de soi dans les littératures du monde occidental. Robert Ellrodt, ed. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1983.

CRONAN
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CROSS
Cross, James E. 'Aspects of Microcosm and Macrocosm in Old English Literature'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Stanley B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.

CROSS et al.
Cross, James E. (ed.) with Denis Brearley, Julia Crick, Thomas N. Hall, Andy Orchard. Two Old English Apocrypha and Their Manuscript Source: The Gospel of Nichodemus and The Avenging of the Saviour. [Old English, Latin & translation]. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 1996.

CULBERT
Culbert, Taylor. 'The Narrative Function of Beowulf's Swords'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 59 (1960).

DeLUCA
DeLuca, Diana M. 'Teaching Beowulf in Translation to Undergraduates - IV'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

DAHL
Dahl, Ivar. Substantival Inflexion in Early Old English: vowel stems. Lund Studies in Engilish, 7. Lund: Gleerup, 1938.

DALBEY
Dalbey, Marcia A. 'Themes and Techniques in the Blickling Lenten Homilies'. in The Old English Homily & Its Backgrounds. Paul E. Szarmach & Bernard F. Huppé, eds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1978.

DAMICO
Damico, Helen. Beowulf's Wealhtheow and the Valkyrie Tradition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
-------. 'The Valkyrie Reflex in Old English Literature'.in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

DARBY
Darby, H.C. 'The Fenland Frontier in Anglo-Saxon England'. Antiquity 8 (1934).

DAVIDSON
Ellis Davidson, Hilda Roderick. The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: its archaeology and literature. E. Oakeshott, ill. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962 (rev. ed. Woodbridge (Suffolk): The Boydell Press, 1994).

DAVIDSON (X)
Ellis Davidson, Hilda Roderick. 'The Hill of the Dragon: Anglo-Saxon Burial Mounds in Literature and Archaeology.' Folk-Lore 61 (1950).
-------. 'The Training of Warriors'. in Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

DAVIS
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DAY
Day, David. 'Hwanan sio fæhð aras: Defining the Feud in Beowulf'. Philological Quarterly 78 (1999) [reprinted with revisions, The Heroic Age 5 (2001) - available online at http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/5/Day1.html].

DEAD SEA SCROLLS
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DEEGAN & ROBINSON
Deegan, Marilyn & Peter Robinson. 'The Electronic Edition'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

DENISON
Denison, David. English Historical Syntax: verbal constructions. London: Longman, 1993.

DEOR
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[see also under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

DETTER
Detter, Ferdinand. 'Zur Ynglingsaga. 2: Der Baldrmythus; König Hygelac'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 19 (1894).

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DOBBIE
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DOMESDAY BOOK, THE
Williams, Ann & G.H. Martin, eds. Domesday Book: a complete translation. London: Penguin, 1992.

DONOGHUE
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DREAM OF THE ROOD
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DRESHER
Dresher, Bezalel Elan. Old English and the Theory of Phonology. New York: Garland, 1985 (Ph.D. dissertation, Uni. of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1978).

DRESHER & LAHIRI
Dresher, Bezalel Elan & Aditi Lahiri. 'The Germanic Foot: metrical coherence in Old English'. Linguistic Inquiry 22 (1991).

DROGIN
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DRONKE
Dronke, Ursula. 'Beowulf and Ragnarök.' Saga-Book of the Viking Society 17 (1968).[ reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]
-------. 'The war of the Æsir and Vanir in Völuspá . in Idee, Gestalt, Geschichte. Festschrift Klaus von See. G.W. Weber, ed. Odense: Odense University Press, 1988. [reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands . Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]
-------. 'Eddic poetry as a source for the history of Germanic religion'. in Germanische Religionsgeschichte. Quellen und Quellenprobleme. H. Beck, D. Ellmers, & K. Schier, eds. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1992. [reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]
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DRONKE & DRONKE
Dronke, Ursula and Peter Dronke. 'The prologue of the Prose Edda : explorations of a Latin background'. in Sjötíu Ritgerðir, Helgaðar Jakobi Benediktssyni . Reykjavík: Stofnun Árna Magnússonar, 1997. [reprinted in Myth and Fiction in Early Norse Lands. Aldershot (Hampshire): Variorum, 1996.]

DuBOIS
DuBois, Thomas A. Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

DUMÉZIL
Dumézil, Georges. Mitra-Varuna: an essay on two Indo-European representations of sovereignty. Derek Coltman, trans. New York & Cambridge, Massachusetts: Zone Books & MIT Press, 1988. [translation of Mitra-Varuna, essai sur deux représentations indo-européennes de la Souveraineté. Paris: Gallimard, 1940 (2nd. ed., 1948)].
-------. Gods of the Ancient Northmen. Einar Haugen, ed. Publications of the UCLA Center for the Study of Comparative Folklore and Mythology, 3. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. [translation of Les Dieux des Germains: essai sur la formation de la religion scandinave. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1959.]
-------. The Destiny of the Warrior. Alf Hiltebeitel, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. [translation of Heur et malheur du guerrier: aspects mythiques de la fonction guerrière chez les Indo-Européens. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969.]
-------. Mythe et épopée. I. L'idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européens; II. Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi; III. Histoires romaines. 3 vols. Paris: Gallimard, 1968, 1971, 1973. [rev. ed. reprinted in 1 vol., Paris: Gallimard, 1995].
-------. From Myth to Fiction: the saga of Hadingus. Derek Coltman, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. [translation of Du mythe au roman: la saga de Hadingus et autres essais. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1970.]
-------. The Stakes of the Warrior. David Weeks, trans. Jaan Puhvel, ed. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1983. [trans. of 'L'enjeu du jeu des dieux--un héros', part one of Mythe et épopée, vol. 2: Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1971.]
-------. The Destiny of a King. Alf Hiltebeitel, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. [originally published in French as part three of Mythe et épopée, vol. 2: Types épiques indo-européens: un héros, un sorcier, un roi. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1971].
-------. Loki. Paris: Flammarion, 1986 (3rd rev. ed.).

DUMITRESCU
Dumitrescu, Irina A. 'Verbal Dueling'. Dragons in the Sky: English speaking communities at the close of the millenia (January 2003).

DUMVILLE
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-------. 'Beowulf come lately: some notes on the palaeography of the Nowell Codex'. Archiv 225 (1988).
-------. 'English Libraries Before 1066: use and abuse of the manuscript evidence'. in Insular Latin Studies: papers on Latin texts and manuscripts of the British Isles: 550-1066. Michael W. Herren, ed. Papers in Mediaeval Studies, 1. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1981 [reprinted in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994. (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001)].
-------. 'Editing Old English Texts for Historians and Other Troublemakers'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

EARL
Earl, James W. 'Beowulf's Rowing-Match'. Neophilologus 63 (1979).
-------. Thinking about Beowulf. Stanford (California): Stanford University Press, 1994.

EARLE
ed. Earle, John. The Deeds of Beowulf: an English epic of the eighth century done into modern prose. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892.

ECO
Eco, Umberto. A Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979.

EDDA, ELDER
ed. Jónsson, Finnur. Sæmundar-Edda. [Old Icelandic only] Reykjavík: Sigurður Kristjánsson, 1905.
ed. Neckel, Gustav. Edda: die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern [+ Glossar]. [2 vols.] Germanische Bibliothek, 9. Heidelberg: Carl Winters, 1927 [2nd ed.].
trans. Bellows, Henry Adams. The Poetic Edda. [English trans. only] Princeton [New Jersey]: Princeton University Press, 1936.

EDDA, YOUNGER
Sturluson, Snorri. Snorra-Edda. [Old Icelandic text w/ modern Icelandic preface & notes] Heimir Pálsson, ed. Reykjavík: Mál og menning, 2003.
Sturluson, Snorri. Edda. [English trans. only] Anthony Faulkes, ed. & trans. London: Dent, 1987.

EGILSSAGA
Egil Skalla-Grimsson. Egils saga. Christine Fell, trans. [modern English only]. London & Toronto: Dent & University of Toronto Press, 1975.

EINARSSON
Einarsson, Stefán. 'Old English beot and Old Icelandic heitstrenging'. Publications of the Modern Language Association 49 (1934). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Kahrl, eds. Hamden (Connecticut): Archon, 1968.]

ELIASON
Eliason, Norman E. 'The "Thryth-Offa Digression" in Beowulf'. in Franciplegius: medieval and linguistic studies in honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. J.B. Bessinger & R.P. Creed, eds. New York: New York University Press, 1965.

ELIEZER
Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer.
Gerald Friedlander, ed. 1916; reprinted, New York, 1970.

ELLIOTT
Elliott, Ralph W.V. 'Byrhtnoth and Hildebrand: a study in heroic technique'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.

EMERSON
Emerson, Oliver F. 'Legends of Cain, especially in Old and Middle English'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 21 (1906).
-------. 'Grendel's Motive in Attacking Heorot'. Modern Language Review 16 (1921).

ENOCH
trans. Charles, R.H. The Book of Enoch. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1917.

ESTRICH
Estrich, R.M. 'The Throne of Hrothgar - Beowulf, ll. 168-69'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 43 (1944).

ETTMÜLLER
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ETTMÜLLER (X)
ed. Ettmüller, Ludwig. Engla and Seaxna Scopas and Boceras. Quedlinburg & Leipzig, 1850.

EVANS
Evans, Stephen S. Lords of Battle: image and reality of the comitatus in dark-age Britain. Woodbridge (Suffolk, England): Boydell, 1997.

EVISON
Evison, Vera I. 'Review of H.R. Ellis Davidson's The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England'. Medium Ævum 32 (1963).
-------. 'A decorated seax from the Thames at Keen Edge Ferry'. Berkshire Archaeological Journal 61 (1963-4).

EXETER BOOK
ed. Krapp, George Philip and Elliott van Kirk Dobbie. The Exeter Book. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 3. New York: Columbia Uni Press, 1961.
[see also under Klink for Exeter Book 'Elegies']

EXODUS
ed. Lucas, Peter J. Exodus. London: Methuen, 1977. [revised ed., Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1994]

FALK
Falk, H. Altnordische Waffenkunde. Kristiania, 1914 (Videnskaps Skrifter, ii, Hist.-Filos., 6).

FARRELL & KARKOV
Farrell, Robert T. with Catherine Karkov. 'The Construction, Deconstruction, and Reconstruction of the Ruthwell Cross: some caveats'. in The Ruthwell Cross: papers from the colloquium sponsored by the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University, 8 Decemeber 1989. Brendan Cassidy, ed. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton Universit Press, 1992.

FATES OF THE APOSTLES
ed. Brooks, Kenneth R. Andreas and the Fates of the Apostles. Oxford: Clarendon, 1961.

FELLOWS-JENSEN
Fellows-Jensen, Gillian. 'In the steps of the Vikings'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

FILMER-SANKEY & PESTELL et al.
Filmer-Sankey, William and Tim Pestell et al. Snape Anglo-Saxon Cemetery: excavations and surveys 1824-1992. East Anglian Archaeology Report no.95, 2001. Ipswich (Suffolk): Archaeological Service, Suffolk County Council, 2001.

FINNSBURG (fragment & episode)
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Fischer, Olga, Ans van Kemenade, Willem Koopman, & Wim van der Wurff. The Syntax of Early English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

FJALLDAL
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FLINT
Flint, Valerie I.J. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press, 1991.

FLOM
Flom, G.T. 'Alliteration and Variation in Old Germanic Name-Giving'. Modern Language Notes 32 (1917).

FLOOD
Flood, Gavin. An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FOLEY
Foley, John Miles. 'Beowulf and Traditional Narrative Song: the potential and limits of comparison'. in Old English Literature in Context: ten essays. John D. Niles, ed. Cambridge: Brewer, 1980.
-------. 'Teaching the Backgrounds: Beowulf: Oral Tradition Behind the Manuscript'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. Traditional Oral Epic: 'Beowulf', the 'Odyssey' and the Serbo-Croatian Return Song. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
-------. Immanent Art: from structure to meaning in traditional oral epic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

FONTENROSE
Fontenrose, Joseph. Python: a study of Delphic Myth and its origins. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.

FOOT
Foot, Sarah. 'The Making of Angelcynn: English Identity Before the Norman Conquest'. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 6.6 (1996). [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]

FORBY
ed. Forby, R. The Vocabulary of East Anglia. 2 vols. London, 1830.

FÖRSTER
Förster, Max. Die Beowulf-Handschrift. Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften auf Leipzig, Philologisch-historische Klasse 71 (1919).

FOWLER, P.J.
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FOX
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FRANK
Frank, Roberta. 'Skaldic Verse and the Date of Beowulf'.  in The Dating of 'Beowulf'. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981.
-------. 'The Beowulf Poet's Sense of History'. in The Wisdom of Poetry: essays in early English literature in honor of Morton W. Bloomfield. Larry D. Benson & Siegfried Wenzel, eds. Kalamazoo (Michigan): Medieval Institute Publications, 1982a.
-------. 'Old Norse Memorial Eulogies and the Ending of Beowulf'. in The Early Middle Ages. William H. Snyder, ed. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1982b.
-------. '"Mere" and "Sund": Two Sea-Changes in Beowulf'. in Modes of Interpretation in Old English Literature: essays in honour of Stanley B. Greenfield. Phyllis Rugg Brown, Georgia Ronan Crampton & Fred C. Robinson, eds. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1986.
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-------. 'Germanic legend in Old English literature'. in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Malcolm Godden & Michael Lapidge, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
-------. 'King Cnut in the verse of his skalds'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

FRANKIS
Frankis, P.J. 'The Thematic Significance of enta geweorc and Related Imagery in The Wanderer'. Anglo-Saxon England 2 (1973).

FRANTZEN
Frantzen, Allen J. 'Writing the Unreadable Beowulf: "Writan" and "Forwritan", the pen and the sword'. Exemplaria 3 (1991).

FRAZER
Frazer, James George. The Golden Bough: a study in magic and religion. London: Macmillan, 1922.

FRY
Fry, Donald K. 'Special Approaches: Visual Materials for Teaching Beowulf'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

FULK
Fulk, Robert D. A History of Old English Meter. Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

FULK (X)
Fulk, Robert D.  'Review Article: Dating Beowulf to the Viking Age'. Philological Quarterly 61 (1982).
-------. 'An Eddic Analogue to the Scyld Scefing Story'. Review of English Studies 40 (1989).
-------. 'Textual Criticism'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
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GADE
Gade, Kari Ellen. The Structure of Old Norse Dróttvaett Poetry. Islandica, 49. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1995.

GALE
Gale, David. 'The Seax'. in Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

GANNHOLM
Gannholm, Tore. 2000 Jahre Handel und Kultur im Ostseegebiet - Gotland, Perle der Ostsee. Stånga (Gotland [Sweden]): Förlag Stavgard, 1996a.
------. The Origin of Svear and their arrival into the Lake Mälar Area in the 6th century. Stånga (Gotland [Sweden]): Förlag Stavgard, 1996b.

GARMONSWAY et al.
ed. Garmonsway, G.N., Jacqueline Simpson, Hilda Ellis Davidson. Beowulf and its analogues: including 'Archaeology and Beowulf' by H.E. Davidson. London: Dent & Dutton, 1964.

GASIOROWSKI
Gasiorowski, Piotr. The Phonology of Old English Stress and Metrical Structure. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1997.

GELLING
Gelling, Margaret. Signposts to the Past: place-names and the history of England. London, 1978.
-------. 'The landscape of Beowulf'. Anglo-Saxon England 31(2002).

GELLING & DAVIDSON
Gelling, Peter & Hilda Ellis Davidson. The Chariot of the Sun, and other rites and symbols of the northern bronze age. London: Dent, 1969.

GENESIS B (& OLD SAXON GENESIS)
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GERING
ed. Gering, Hugo. Beovulf Nebst Dem Finnsburg-Bruchstück: Übersetzt Und Erläutert. [German trans. only] Heidelburg: Winter, 1906.

GERRITSEN
Gerritsen, Johan. 'British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv--a Supplementary Description'. English Studies 69 (1988).
-------. 'Emending Beowulf 2253 - Some Matters of Principle: with a supplement on 389-90, 1372 & 240'. Neuphilologus 73 (1989a).
-------. 'A Reply to Dr. Kiernan's "Footnote"'. English Studies 72 (1991).

GETTY
Getty, Michael. The Metre of Beowulf: a constraint-based approach. Topics in English Linguistics, 36. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002.

GIBBS & JOHNSON
Gibbs, Marion E. & Sidney M. Johnson. Medieval German Literature. New York & London: Routledge, 1997.

GILGAMESH
ed. Parpola, Simo. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh: cuneiform text, transliteration, glossary, indices and sign list. [Akkadian only] State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts, 1. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project (University of Helsinki, Dept. of Asian & African Studies), 1997.
ed./trans. George, Andrew. The Epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. [English trans. only] London: Penguin, 2000.

GLOB
Glob, P.V. The Bog People. trans. from Danish by Rupert Bruce-Mitford. Frogmore (Herts, England): Paladin, 1971.

GLOSECKI
Glosecki, Stephen O. 'Wolf Dancers and Whispering Beasts: shamanic motifs from Sutton Hoo?' The Mankind Quarterly 26 (1986).
-------. Shamanism and Old English Poetry. New York: Garland, 1989.
-------. 'Movable Beasts: the manifold implications of early Germanic animal imagery'. in Animals in the Middle Ages: a book of essays. Nona C. Flores, ed. New York: Garland, 1996.
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GNEUSS
Gneuss, Helmut. Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a list of manuscripts and manuscript fragments written or owned in England up to 1100. Tempe (Arizona): Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001.

GNEUSS (X)
Gneuss, Helmut. 'Guide to the Editing and Preparation of Texts for the Dictionary of Old English'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

GODDEN
Godden, Malcolm. 'Aelfric and the Vernacular Prose Tradition'. in The Old English Homily & Its Backgrounds. Paul E. Szarmach & Bernard F. Huppé, eds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1978.
-------. 'Anglo-Saxons on the Mind'. in Learning and Literature in Anglo-Saxon England. M. Lapidge & H. Gneuss, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. R.M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
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GOFFART
Goffart, Walter. 'Hetware and Hugas : datable anachronisms in Beowulf'. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto Old English Series, 6. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

GOLDSMITH
Goldsmith, Margaret E. 'The Christian Perspective in Beowulf'. Comparative Literature 14 (1962)[reprinted in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism.  Lewis E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: Uni. of Notre Dame Press, 1963.]

GORDON
Gordon, E.V. An Introduction to Old Norse. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926 (2nd ed. 1957).

GRAHAM-CAMPBELL
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GRATTAN & SINGER
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GREEN
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GREENFIELD & CALDER
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GREIN
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GREIN (X)
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GRIGSBY
Grigsby, John. The Truth Behind England's Oldest Myth: Beowulf & Grendel. London: Watkins, 2005.

GRIGSON
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GRIFFITHS
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GRIMM
Grimm, Jacob. Deutsche Mythologie. 4 vols. Göttingen: Dieterich, 1854 (3rd ed.)

GROSSMAN
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GRUNDTVIG
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GRUNDTVIG (X)
Grundtvig, Nicolas Frederic Severin. 'Et Par Ord om det nys udkomne angelsaxiske Digt'. Nyeste Skilderie af Kjøbenhavn 60 - cols. 945, 998, 1009, 1025, 1045; 'Nok et Par Ord om Bjovulfs Drape'. (review/comments on Thorkelin's text & translation) cols. 1106, 1121, 1139.
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GRUNDTVIG et al.
Clarke, M.G. (Grundtvig, N.S.F., Sophus Bugge). Sidelights on Teutonic History during the Migration Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911.

GUTHLAC (FELIX)
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GUÐRÚN MAGNÚSDÓTTIR
Guðrún Kristín Magnúsdóttir. Óðsmál. Reykjavík: Freyjukettir, 1996.

HABER
Haber, Tom Burns. A Comparative Study of the Beowulf and the Aeneid. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press, 1931.

HAGEN
Hagen, Ann. A Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Food: processing and consumption. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1992.

HALAMA
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HALL, R.
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HALVERSON
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HANSON & KIPARSKY
Hanson, Kristin & Paul Kiparsky. 'A Parametric Theory of Poetic Meter'. Language 72 (1996).

HAMP
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HARRIS
Harris, Joseph. 'Beowulf in Literary History'. Pacific Coast Philology 17 (1982).
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HART
Hart, Thomas Elwood. 'Calculated Casualties in Beowulf: geometrical scaffolding and verbal symbol'. Studia Neophilologica 53 (1981).

HATTO
Hatto, A.T. 'Snake-Swords and Boar-Helms in Beowulf.' English Studies 38 (1957).

HAUDRY
Haudry, Jean. 'Comparative Mythology and Comparative Philology'. in Homage to Georges Dumézil. E.C. Polomé, ed. Journal of Indo-European Studies monograph, 3. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1982.
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HEALEY (X)
Healey, Antonette diPaolo. 'The Search for Meaning'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994a.
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HEANEY
Heaney, Seamus. Beowulf: a new verse translation. London: Faber & Faber, 1999.

HELIAND
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HERBERT
Herbert, Kathleen. Looking for the Lost Gods of England. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1995.
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HERMANN
Hermann, John P. Allegories of War: language and violence in Old English poetry. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989.

HESSELS
Hessels, J.H. A Late Eighth-Century Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary. Cambridge, 1906.

HEUSLER
Heusler, Andreas. Die altgermanische Dichtung. Potsdam: Athenaion, 1929 (2nd ed., 1941).

HEYERDAHL
Heyerdahl, Gerd Høst. 'Wilhelm Grimm and the Study of Runes'. in The Grimm Brothers and the Germanic Past. Elmer H. Antonsen, ed. with James W. Marchand & Ladislav Zgusta, eds. Amsterdam Studies in the Theory & History of Linguistic Science. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990.

HEYNE
ed. Heyne, Moritz. Beowulf mit ausführlichem Glossar, herausgegeben. Paderborn:Schöningh, 1863.

HICKES
Hickes, George. Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archaeologicus. vol. 1. Oxford, 1703-5.

HIEATT
Hieatt, Constance B. 'Teaching the Backgrounds: Parallels, Useful Analogues, and Elusive Sources'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

HIGLEY
Higley, Sarah Lynn. 'The Mouthful of Giants: words and space in Indo-European Revelational Discourse'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.

HILL, T.
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HILL, J.
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HILLS
Hills, Catherine M. 'Beowulf and Archaeology'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

HILTEBEITEL
Hiltebeitel, Alf. The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1976. [reprinted, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990].
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HINES
Hines, J. The Scandinavian Character of Anglian England in the pre-Viking Period. (British Series, 124) Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1984.
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HINTON
Hinton, David A. Catalogue of the Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100 in the Department of Antiquities, Ashmolean Museum. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974.
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HIRT
Hirt, Hermann. Handbuch des Urgermanischen. (1: Laut- u. Akzentlehre; 2: Stammbildungs- und Flexionslehre; 3: Abriss der Syntax). 3 vols [reprinted as 1]. Heidelburg: Carl Winters Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1931-1934.

HISTORIA BRITTONUM
ed. Mommsen, T. Historia Brittonum. Berlin: Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi, 1894.

HOCK
Hock, Hans Henrich. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Trends in Linguistics - studies & monographs, 34. The Hague: Mouton, 1986. [2nd, rev., & augmented ed., Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1991].

HOGG
Hogg, Richard M. Old English Grammar (vol. I: phonology). Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992a.
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HOLDER
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HOLLIFIELD
Hollifield, P.H. 'The Phonological Development of Final Syllables in Germanic'. Die Sprach 26 (1980).

HOLMAN
Holman, Katherine. 'Defining the Danelaw'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

HOLTHAUSEN
ed. Holthausen, Ferdinand. Beowulf nebst dem Finnsburg-Bruchstück. 2 parts. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1905-6 (3rd ed. 1913).
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HOLTHAUSEN (X)
Holthausen, Ferdinand. 'Zu den altenglischen Zaubersprüchen und Segen'. Anglia 31 (1920).
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HOLTZMANN
Holtzmann, Adolf. Altdeutsche grammatik. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1870-75.

HOMER
Homer. The Iliad, with an English Translation. [Greek & English] 2 vols. A.T. Murray, ed. Loeb Classical Library, 170 & 171. London & Cambridge (Massachusetts): Heinemann & Harvard University Press, 1924.
-------. The Odyssey, with an English Translation. [Greek & English] 2 vols. A.T. Murray, ed. Loeb Classical Library, 104 & 105. London & Cambridge (Massachusetts): Heinemann & Harvard University Press, 1919.

HOOPER
Hooper, Nicholas. 'The Anglo-Saxons at War'. inWeapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

HOOPS
Hoops, J. 'Altenglische ealuscerwen, meoduscerwen'. Englische Studien 65 (1931).

HORGAN
Horgan, A.D. 'Religious Attitudes in Beowulf'. in Essays and Poems Presented to Lord David Cecil. W.W. Robson, ed. London: Constable, 1970.

HORN
Horn, Peter C. 'The Anglo-Saxon Hearpe'. Wiðowinde 115 (Autumn 1998) [online article].

HOWE
Howe, Nicholas. Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England. New Haven, Conneticut: Yale University Press, 1989 [reprinted: Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001].

HOWE (X)
Howe, Nicholas. 'The Cultural Construction of Reading in Anglo-Saxon England'. in The Ethnography of Reading. Johnathan Boyarin, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
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-------. 'Historicist approaches'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997b.

HOWELL
Howell, Robert B. 'Old English Breaking and Its Germanic Analogues'. Linguistische Arbeiten 235 (1991).

HOWLETT
Howlett, D.R. 'Inscriptions and Design of the Ruthwell Cross'. in The Ruthwell Cross: papers from the colloquium sponsored by the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University, 8 Decemeber 1989. Brendan Cassidy, ed. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton Universit Press, 1992.
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HRISOULAS
Hrisoulas, Jim. The Pattern-Welded Blade: artistry in iron. Boulder (Colorado): Paladin Press, 1994.

HROLFS SAGA KRAKA
ed. Slay, Desmond. The manuscripts of Hrólfs saga kraka. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1960.
ed. Byock, Jesse L. The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki. [English trans. only] Harmondsworth (Middlesex): Penguin, 1999.

HUFFINES
Huffines, Marion Lois. 'OE áglaéce : magic and moral decline of monsters and men'. Semasia 1 (1974).

HUGHES
Hughes, (Sister) Maeve, IBVM. Epic Women: East and West - a study with special reference to the Mahábhárata and Gaelic Heroic literature. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1994.

HUMPHREYS & ROSS
Humphreys, F.C. & A.S.C. Ross. 'Further Manuscripts of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, of the "Epistola Cuthberti de obitu Bedae", and Further Anglo-Saxon Texts of "Cædmon's Hymn", and "Bede's Death Song"'. Notes and Queries 220 (1975).

THE HUSBAND'S MESSAGE
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

HUTCHESON
Hutcheson, Bellenden Rand. Old English Poetic Metre. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1995.
-------. 'Kaluza's Law, The Dating of Beowulf, and the Old English Poetic Tradition'. Journal of English & Germanic Philology (to appear).

IBN FADLAN
see Smyser below.

ILIAD
see Homer above.

IMELMANN
Imelmann, Rudolf. '"Beowulf" 303ff. und 3074f'. Englische Studien 67 (1932/33).

IRVINE
Irvine, Susan. 'The compilation and use of manuscripts containing Old English in the twelfth century'. in Rewriting Old English in the Twelfth Century. Mary Swan & Elaine M. Treharne, eds. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

IRVING
Irving, Edward B., Jr. 'Ealuscerwen: Wild Party at Heorot'. Tennessee Studies in Literature 11 (1966).
-------. A Reading of 'Beowulf'. New Haven (Conneticut): Yale Uni. Press, 1968.
-------. 'The Nature of Christianity in Beowulf'. Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1984).
-------. Rereading Beowulf. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
-------. 'Christian and Pagan Elements'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. 'Editing Old English Verse: the ideal'. in New Approaches to Editing Old English Verse. Sarah Larratt Keefer & Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1998.

IZYDORCZYK
Izydorczyk, Zbigniew. 'Introduction'. in The Medieval Gospel of Nichodemus: texts, intertexts, and contexts in Western Europe. Zbigniew Izydorczyk, ed. Tempe (Arizona): Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997a.
-------. 'The Evangelium Nicodemi in the Latin Middle Ages'. in The Medieval Gospel of Nichodemus: texts, intertexts, and contexts in Western Europe. Zbigniew Izydorczyk, ed. Tempe (Arizona): Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997b.

IZYDORCZYK & DUBOIS
Izydorczyk, Zbigniew & Jean-Daniel Dubois. 'Nicodemus's Gospel before and beyond the Medieval West'. in The Medieval Gospel of Nichodemus: texts, intertexts, and contexts in Western Europe. Zbigniew Izydorczyk, ed. Tempe (Arizona): Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997.

JACOBS
Jacobs, Nicholas. 'Anglo-Danish Relations, Poetic Archaism, and the Date of Beowulf'. Poetica (Tokyo) 8 (1977).

JANSEN
Jansen, Henrik M. 'The Archaeology of Danish Commercial Centers'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

JENTE
Jente, Richard. Die mythologischen Ausdrücke im altenglischen Wortschatz: eine kulturgeschichtlich-etymologische Untersuchung. Heidelberg: Winter, 1921.

JESCH
Jesch, Judith. 'Skaldic verse in Scandinavian England'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

JESPERSEN
Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. Oxford: Blackwell, 1938. [reprinted, New York: The Free Press, 1968]

JOHANSSON
Johansson, Gust. The Making of Beowulf and Placenames in Beowulf. Göteborg: Nordiska Boktryckeri A.-B., 1969.

JOHN
John, Eric. 'Beowulf and the Margins of Literacy'. Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 56 (1973-74) [reprinted in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000.]

JOHNSTON
Johnston, Edward. Writing & Illuminating, and Lettering. The Artistic Crafts Series of Technical Handbooks. London: John Hogg, 1906. [32nd impress., London: Pitman, 1975]
-------. Manuscripts & Inscription Letters: for schools & classes & for the use of craftsmen. [15 plates, plus introduction, in a folding cover. 10 x 12 inches] (with 5 plates by A.E.R. Gill) London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1909 [rev. ed., 1911. reprinted, 1950].

JOLLY
Jolly, Karen Louise. Popular Religion in Late Saxon England: elf charms in context. Chapel Hill: Uni. of North Carolina Press, 1996.

JÓN AÐALSTEINSSON
Jón Hnefill Aðalsteinsson. A Piece of Horse Liver: myth, ritual and folklore in Old Icelandic sources. Terry Gunnell & Joan Turville-Petre, trans. Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan, 1998.

JONES
Jones, Lee A. 'The Serpent in the Sword: pattern-welding in early medieval swords'. Catalogue of the 14th Park Lane Arms Fair, 1997. [also available online--click here]

JONES & PENNICK
Jones, Prudence & Nigel Pennick. A History of Pagan Europe. London: Routledge, 1995.

JORDANES
Jordanes. The Origin and Deeds of the Goths. Charles C. Mierow, trans. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University, 1908. [also available online--click here]

JUDITH
ed. Griffith, Mark. Judith. Exeter Medieval Texts & Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997.

JUNG
Jung, (Rabbi) Leo. Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature. Philadelphia: Dropsie College for Hebrew & Cognate Learning, 1926.

JUNIUS MANUSCRIPT
ed. Krapp, George Philip. The Junius Manuscript. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931.

KABIR
Kabir, Ananya Jahanara. 'Towards a Contra-Modern Aesthetics: reading the Old English "Andreas" against an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe'. paper given at the 'Transformations in Christianity: representations & interpretations in the arts, 1000-2000 AD' conference held by the Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen, 2000. [available online at: http://www.teol.ku.dk/ckk/conf/S6/session_6a.htm]
-------. Paradise, Death and Doomsday in Anglo-Saxon Literature. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 32. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 2001.

KAHRL
Karhl, Stanley. 'Feuds in Beowulf : A Tragic Necessity?' Modern Philology 84 (1972).

KALUZA
Kaluza, Max. Die altenglische Vers: eine metrische Untersuchung. Berlin: Emil Felber, 1894a.
-------. Die Metrik des Beowulfliedes. Studien zum germanischen Alliterationsvers, 2. Berlin, 1894b.
-------. 'Zur Betonungs- and Verslehre des Altenglischen'. in Festschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstage Oskar Schade. Königsberg: Hartung, 1896.
-------. Englische Metrik in historischer Entwicklung. Normannia: Germanische-romanische Bücherei, 1. Berlin: Emil Felber, 1909.
-------. A Short History of English Versification. A.C. Dunstan, trans. London: George Allen, 1911.

KASKE
Kaske, R.E. 'Sapientia et Fortitudo as the Controlling Theme of Beowulf'. Studies in Philology 55 (1958) [reprinted in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism.  Lewis E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame, Indiana: Uni. of Notre Dame Press, 1963.]
-------. '"Hygelac" and "Hygd"'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Stanley B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.
-------. 'The Eotenas in Beowulf'. in Old English Poetry: fifteen essays. R.P. Creed, ed. Providence (Rhode Island): Brown University Press, 1967.
-------. 'Beowulf and the Book of Enoch'. Speculum 46.3 (July 1971).

KASTOVSKY
Kastovky, Dieter. 'Semantic and Vocabulary'. in The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 1: the beginnings to 1066. Richard M. Hogg, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

KEEFER
Keefer, Sarah Larratt. 'Respect for the Book: a reconsideration of "form", "content" and "context" in two vernacular poems'. in New Approaches to Editing Old English Verse. Sarah Larratt Keefer & Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1998.

KELLER
Keller, Mary L. The Anglo-Saxon Weapon Names. Heidelberg (Anglistische Forschungen, xv), 1906.

KELLY
Kelly, Birte. 'The Formative Stages of Beowulf Textual Scholarship (part 1)'. Anglo Saxon England 11 (1982).
-------. 'The Formative Stages of Beowulf Textual Scholarship (part 2)'. Anglo Saxon England 12 (1983).

KELLY, S.
Kelly, Susan. 'Anglo-Saxon Lay Society and the Written Word'. in The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe. Rosamond McKitterick, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]

KEMBLE
ed. Kemble, John Mitchell. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, The Traveller's Song, and the Battle of Finnesburh. London: W. Pickering, 1835-7 (2nd ed.).

KENDALL
Kendall, Calvin B. The Metrical Grammar of Beowulf. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

KER, N.R.
Ker, N.R. Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

KER, W.P.
Ker, W.P. Epic and Romance: essays on medieval literature. London: Macmillan, 1896 [2nd ed., 1908].
-------.The Dark Ages. Edinburgh & London: William Blackwood, 1904.

KEYNES
Keynes, Simon. 'Rædwald the Bretwalda'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.
-------. 'Cnut's earls'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

KIERNAN
Kiernan, Kevin. Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1981 (2nd ed., Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996).

KIERNAN (X)
Kiernan, Kevin. 'The State of the Beowulf Manuscript, 1882-1983'. Anglo-Saxon England 13 (1983). [reprinted in 2nd ed. of Beowulf & the Beowulf Manuscript. (see above entry)]
-------. 'The Legacy of Wiglaf: Saving a Wounded Beowulf'. The Kentucky Review 6 (1986). [reprinted in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000]
-------. 'Reading Cædmon's "Hymn" with Someone Else's Glosses'. Representations 32 (1990). [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
-------. 'A Long Footnote for J. Gerritsen's 'Supplementary' Description of BL Cotton MS Vitellius A. XV'. English Studies  72 (1991).
-------. 'Digital Image Processing and the Beowulf Manuscript'. Literary and Linguistic Computing 6 (1991). [also available online--click here].
-------. 'Old Manuscripts/New Technologies'. in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994 (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001).
-------. 'The Conybeare-Madden Collation of Thorkelin's Beowulf'. in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts and Their Heritage. P. Pulsiano & E. Treharne, eds. Aldershot(Hants): Ashgate, 1997.[also available online--click here].
-------. "The nathwylc Scribe and the nathwylc Text of Beowulf." Poetry, Place and Gender: Studies in Medieval Culture in Honor of Helen Damico, ed. Catherine E. Karkov. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2009, pp. 98-131.

KIERNAN et al.
ed. Kiernan, Kevin with Andrew Prescott, Elizabeth Solopova, David French, Linda Cantara, Michael Ellis & Cheng Jiun Yuan.
Electronic Beowulf (an electronic colour fascimile including the Beowulf MS & other all texts in Cotton MS Vitellius A. xv and the Thorkelin A & B transcriptions). [2 CD-ROMs] London & Ann Arbor (Michigan): The British Library and The University of Michigan Press, 1999. [Ver. 2.0, 2003]

KING
King, Anne. 'You say [æjðer] and I say [æjhwæðer]?: interpreting Old English written data'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.

KIRBY
Kirby, D.P. The Earliest English Kings. London: Routledge, 1991.

KLAEBER
ed. Klaeber, Frederick. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. Boston: D.C. Heath, 1950 (3rd ed. with 1st & 2nd supplements).

KLAEBER (X)
Klaeber, Frederick. 'Die christlichen Elemente im Beowulf'. Anglia 35 & 36 (1911-12). reprinted in English translation by Paul Battles as The Christian Elements in Beowulf. Kalamazoo: The Medieval Institute/Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies, Western Michigan University (=Old English Newsletter Subsidia 29), 2000.
-------. 'Beowulfiana'. Anglia 50 (1926).

KLINK
ed. Klink, Anne L. The Old English Elegies: a critical edition and genre study. Montreal & Kingston (Canada): McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.

KLUGE
Kluge, Friedrich (ed.) with Elmar Seebold, Walther Mitzka, Alfred Götze, et al. (eds.). Kluge: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 22nd-24th eds., Elmar Seebold (ed.). 24th ed., Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2002 (1st ed., 1883).

KLUGE (X)
ed. Kluge, Friedrich. Angelsächsisches Lesebuch. Halle, 1915 (4th ed.).

KÖBERL
Köberl, Johann. 'The Magic Sword in Beowulf'. Neophilologus 71 (1987).
-------. The Indeterminacy of Beowulf. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 2002.

KOCK
Kock, Ernest A. Jubilee Jaunts and Jottings: 250 Contributions to the Interpretation and Prosody of Old West Teutonic Alliterative Poetry. Lund: Gleerup, 1918.

KOOPMAN
Koopman, Willem. 'Old English Clitic Pronouns: some remarks'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.

KÖRNER
Körner, K. Einleitung in das Studium des Angelsächsischen. Heilbronn, 1880.

KRAHE & MEID
Krahe, Hans & Wolfgang Meid. Germanische Sprachwissenschaft. 3 vols. Berlin: Gruyter, 1967-69 (7th ed.).

KROCH & TAYLOR
Kroch, Anthony S. & Ann Taylor. 'Verb movement in Old and Middle English: dialect variation and language contact'. in Parameters of Morphosyntactic Change. A. van Kemenade & N. Vincent, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

KUHN
Kuhn, H. 'Zur Wortstellung und -betonung im Altgermanischen'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 57 (1933).

LACHMANN
Lachmann, Karl. Über die ursprüngliche Gestalt des Gedichts von der Nibelungen Noth. Berlin: F. Dummler, 1816.

LANE
Lane, George. 'Bimoric and Trimoric Vowels and Diphthongs: Laws of Germanic Finals Again'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 62 (1963).

LANG & AGER
Lang, Janet and Barry Ager. 'Swords of the Anglo-Saxon and Viking Periods in the British Museum: a radiographic study'. inWeapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

LAPIDGE
Lapidge, Michael. 'Beowulf, Aldhelm, the Liber monstrorum and Wessex'. Studi Medievali 3rd ser. 23 (1982).
-------. 'Surviving Booklists from Anglo-Saxon England'. in Learning and Literature in Anglo-Saxon England. Michael Lapidge & Helmut Gneuss, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. [reprinted, in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994a. (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001)]
-------. 'On the Emendation of Old English Texts'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.
-------. 'The comparative approach'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
-------. 'The archetype of Beowulf'. Anglo-Saxon England 29 (2001).

LAPIDGE et al.
Lapidge, Michael, John Blair, Simon Keynes & Donald Scragg, eds. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

LAPPENBERG
Lappenberg, J.M. '[review of Leo's Sprachproben]'. Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik (August 1838).

LASS
Lass, Roger. Old English: a historical linguistic companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

LAWSON, Gr.
Lawson, Graeme. 'The Lyre Remains from Grave 32'. in Snape Anglo-Saxon Cemetery: excavations and surveys 1824-1992. William Filmer-Sankey & Tim Pestell, eds. East Anglian Archaeology Report no.95, 2001. Ipswich (Suffolk): Archaeological Service, Suffolk County Council, 2001: 215-223.

LAWSON
Lawson, Michael Kenneth. Cnut: the Danes in England in the early eleventh century. London: Longman, 1993.

LEAHY & PATERSON
Leahy, Kevin and Caroline Paterson. 'New light on the Viking presence in Lincolnshire: the artefactual evidence'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

LEAKE
Leake, Jane Acomb. The Geats of Beowulf: a study in the geographical mythology of the Middle Ages. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

LEE
Lee, Alvin A. 'Symbolism and Allegory'. inA Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

LEES
Lees, Clare A. 'Whose Text Is It Anyway? Contexts for Editing Old English Prose.' in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

LEES & OVERING
Lees, Clare A. & Gillian R. Overing. 'Birthing Bishops and Fathering Poets: Bede, Hild, and the relations of cultural production'. Exemplaria 6 (1994). [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]

LEHMANN
Lehmann, Winfred P. The Development of Germanic Verse Form. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1956.

LEHMANN (X)
Lehmann, Winfred P. 'Post-Consonantal l m n r and Metrical Practice in Beowulf'. in Nordica et Anglica: studies in honor of Stefán Einarsson. Allan H. Orrick, ed. Janua Linguarum Series Maior, 22. The Hague: Mouton, 1967.
-------. 'Proto-Germanic syntax'. in Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic. Frans van Coetsem & Herbert L. Kufner, eds. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1972.

LEISI
Leisi, Ernst. 'Gold und Manneswert im Beowulf'. Anglia 71 (1953).

LEITZMANN
Leitzmann, A. Walther und Hiltgunt bei den Angelsachsen. Halle, 1917.

LEO
Leo, Heinrich. Altsächsische und Angelsächsische Sprachproben. Halle, 1838.

LEONARD
Leonard, William Ellery. Beowulf: a new verse translation for fireside and classroom. Lynd Ward, illustr. New York: Heritage Press, 1939. [reprinted, New York: Limited Editions Book Club, 1952]

LERER
Lerer, Seth. 'Grendel's Glove'. English Literary History 61 (1994).

LERNER
Lerner, L.D. 'Colour Words in Anglo-Saxon'. Modern Language Review 46 (1951).

LESLIE
Leslie, Roy F. 'The Editing of Old English Poetic Texts: questions of style'. in Old English Poetry: essays on style. Daniel G. Calder, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]

LETTER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT TO ARISTOTLE
See above under
MS. Cotton Vitellius A.xv 3 Prose Texts.

LEYERLE
Leyerle, John. 'The Interlace Structure of Beowulf'. University of Toronto Quarterly 37 (1967). [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]

LIFE OF ST. CHRISTOPHER
See above under MS. Cotton Vitellius A.xv 3 Prose Texts.

LIGHTFOOT
Lightfoot, David. Diachronic Syntax. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 23. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

LINDEMANN
Lindemann, J.W. Richard. Old English preverbal ge-: its meaning. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1970.

LINDOW
Lindow, John. 'Norse Mythology and Northumbria: methodological notes'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.

LINDSAY
ed. Lindsay, W.M. The Corpus Glossary. Cambridge, 1921.

LIONARONS
Lionarons, Joyce Tally. '3. Bodies, Buildings, and Boundaries: Metaphors of Liminality in Old English and Old Norse Literature.' Essays in Medieval Studies 11 (1994). [also available online at http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol11/lionaron.html]

LITTLETON
Littleton, C. Scott. The New Comparative Mythology: an anthropological assessment of the theories of Georges Dumézil. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982 [3rd ed. (1st ed., 1966)].

LITTLETON (X)
Littleton, C. Scott. 'From Swords in the Earth to the Sword in the Stone: a possible reflection of an Alano-Sarmatian rite of passage in the Arthurian tradition'. in Homage to Georges Dumézil. E.C. Polomé, ed. Journal of Indo-European Studies monograph, 3. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1982.

LIUZZA
ed. & trans. Liuzza, Roy Michael. Beowulf: a new verse translation. Peterborough (Ontario, Canada): Broadview, 2000.

LIUZZA (X)
Liuzza, Roy Michael. 'On the Dating of Beowulf'. in The Beowulf Reader. P.Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 1995.
-------. 'Scribal habit: the evidence of the Old English Gospels'. in Rewriting Old English in the Twelfth Century. Mary Swan & Elaine M. Treharne, eds. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

LÖNNROTH
Lönnroth, Lars. 'iorð fannz æva né upphiminn: a formula analysis'. in Speculum Norroenum: Norse Studies in Memory of Gabriel Turville-Petre. Ursula Dronke, Guðrún P. Helgadóttir, Gerd Wolfgang Weber, & Hans Bekker-Nielsen, eds. Odense: Odense University Press, 1981.

LOOIJENGA
Looijenga, Jantina Helena. Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700: texts & contexts. Ph.d. dissertation, University of Groningen, 1997. [available online @ http://www.ub.rug.nl/eldoc/dis/arts/j.h.looijenga/]

LORD
Lord, Albert Bates. 'Beowulf and Odysseus'. in Franciplegius: medieval and linguistic studies in honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. J.B. Bessinger & R.P. Creed, eds. New York: New York University Press, 1965.
-------. 'Gilgamesh and Other Epics'. in Lingering Over Words: studies in ancient Near Eastern literature in honor of William L. Moran. Tzvi Abusch, John Huehnergard & P. Steinkeller, eds. Harvard Semitic Studies, 37. Cambridge (Massachusetts): Harvard Semitic Museum, 1990. [reprinted in Gilgamesh: a reader. John Maier, ed. Wauconda (Illinois): Bolchazy-Carducci, 1997].
-------. Epic Singers and Oral Tradition. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1991.

LUCY
Lucy, Sam. The Anglo-Saxon Way of Death: burial rites in early England. Thrupp (Stroud, Gloucestershire): Sutton Publishing, 2000.

LUKMAN
Lukman, Niels Clausen. Skjoldunge und Skilfinge. Hunnen- und Heruler-könige in Ostnordischer Überlieferung. Classica et mediaevalia, dissertationes III. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag, 1943.

McANDREW
McAndrew, Shona E. An analysis of the man and dragon combat from the Sigurd legend in the North of England to the first carvings of St Michael and the Dragon. University of St Andrews, Department of Art History, Senior Honours Dissertation, 1990-91. online @ http://www.stbees.org.uk/publications/semdiss/

McCULLY
McCully, C.B. 'The Phonology of Resolution in Old English Word-Stress and Metre'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.

McKINNELL
McKinnell, John. 'Norse Mythology and Northumbria: a response'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.
-------. 'Eddic poetry in Anglo-Scandinavian England'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

McLAUGHLIN
McLaughlin, John. Old English Syntax: a handbook. Sprachstrukturen, A4. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1983.

McNAMEE
McNamee, M.B., S.J. 'Beowulf - an allegory of salvation?'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 59 (1960). [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]

McTURK
McTurk, Rory. 'Variation in Beowulf and the Poetic Edda : a chonological experiment'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

Mac LEAN
Mac Lean, Douglas. 'The Date of the Ruthwell Cross'. in The Ruthwell Cross: papers from the colloquium sponsored by the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University, 8 Decemeber 1989. Brendan Cassidy, ed. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton Universit Press, 1992.

MACKIE
Mackie, W.S. 'The Demons' Home in Beowulf'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 37 (1938).

MADDEN & MAGOUN
Madden, John F. and Francis P. Magoun, Jr. A Grouped Frequency Word-List of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Cambridge (Massachusetts): Harvard Uni, Dept. of English, 1954.

MAGENNIS
Magennis, Hugh. 'Old English Texts for Student Use'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

MAHABHARATA
see Vyasa below.

MAGOUN
Magoun, Francis P., Jr. 'On Some Survivals of Pagan Belief in Anglo-Saxon England'. Harvard Theological Review 40 (1947).
-------. 'The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry'. Speculum 28 (1953). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Kahrl, eds. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon, 1968.]
-------. 'Bede's Story of Cædman: the case history of an Anglo-Saxon Oral Singer'. Speculum 30 (1955).
-------. 'Béowulf A': a Folk Variant'. ARV: Tidskrift för Nordisk Folkminnesforskning 25 (1958).
-------. 'Béowulf B' : a Folk-Poem on Béowulf's Death'. in Early English and Norse Studies: Presented to Hugh Smith in Honor of His Sixtieth Birthday. A. Brown & P. Foote, eds. London: Methuen, 1963.

MALDON
ed. Scragg, D.G. The Battle of Maldon. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981.

MALLORY
Mallory, J.P. In Search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth. London: Thames & Hudson, 1991.

MALMESBURY
Malmesbury, William of. De Gestis Regum Anglorum (Deeds of the Kings of England). W. Stubbs, ed. 2 vols. London, 1887.
-------. The Deeds of the Bishops of England (Gesta Pontificum Anglorum). David Preest, ed., trans. Woodbridge (Suffolk): Boydell, 2002.

MALONE
ed. Malone, Kemp. The Nowell Codex. Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, XII. Copenhagen, Baltimore & London: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1963.

MALONE (X)
Malone, Kemp. 'Agelmund and Lamicho'. American Journal of Philology 47 (1926). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Hrethric'. Publications of the Modern Language Association 42 (1927).
-------. 'The Daughter of Healfdene'. in Studies in English Philology, a miscellany in honor of Frederick Klaeber. Kemp Malone & Martin B. Ruud, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1929. [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Notes on Beowulf II-V'. Anglia 54 (1930).
-------. 'Review of Beowulf: An Introduction to the Study of the Poem with a Discussion of the Stories of Offa and Finn by R.W. Chambers'. English Studies 14 (1932).
-------. 'The Theodoric of the Rök Inscription'. Acta Philologica Scandinavica 9 (1934). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Humblus and Lotherus'. Acta Philologica Scandinavica 13 (1939a). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Swerting'. Germanic Review 14 (1939b).
-------. 'Freawaru'. Journal of English Literary History 7 (1940a). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Ecgtheow'. Modern Language Quarterly 1 (1940b).
-------. 'On Deor 14-17'. Modern Philology 40 (1942). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. Stefán Einarsson & Norman E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Ubbo Fresicus at Brávellir'. Classica et Mediaevalia 8 (1946). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. Stefán Einarsson & Norman E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Beowulf'. English Studies 24 (1948).
-------. 'Royal Names in Old English Poetry'. Names 1 (1953). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'Grendel and His Abode'. in Studia Philologica et Litteraria in Honorem L. Spitzer. A.G. Hatcher & K.L. Selig, eds. Bern: Francke Verlag, 1958.
-------. 'Epithet and Eponym'. Names 2 (1954). [reprinted in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959.]
-------. 'The Tale of Ingeld'. in Studies in Heroic Legend and in Current Speech. S. Einarsson & N.E. Eliason, eds. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1959a.
-------. 'Some Beowulf Readings'. in Franciplegius: medieval and linguistic studies in honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. J.B. Bessinger & R.P. Creed, eds. New York: New York University Press, 1965.
-------. 'Review of Tilman Westphalen, Beowulf 3150-55: Textkritik und Editionsgeschichte'. Speculum 44 (1969).
-------. 'A Reading of Beowulf 3169-3182'. inMedieval Literature and Folklore Studies: essays in honor of Francis Lee Utley. J. Mandel & B.A. Rosenberg, eds. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1970.
-------, ed. Malone, Kemp. Deor. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966 (2nd ed.).

MARCKWARDT & ROSIER
Marckwardt, Albert H. & James L. Rosier. Old English: language and literature. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1972.

MARGESON
Margeson, Sue. The Vikings in Norfolk. Norwich: Norfolk Museums Service, 1997.

MARSDEN
Marsden, John. The Illustrated Bede. (John Gregory, trans.; Geoff Green, photo.) Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1996 (2nd ed.).

MARX
Marx, C.W. 'The Gospel of Nicodemus in Old English and Middle English'. in The Medieval Gospel of Nichodemus: texts, intertexts, and contexts in Western Europe. Zbigniew Izydorczyk, ed. Tempe (Arizona): Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997.

MARYON
Maryon, Herbert. 'Pattern-welding and Damascening of Sword-blades: Part I - Pattern-Welding'. Studies in Conservation 5 (1960).

MASON
ed. Mason, Arthur James. The Mission of St Augustine to England according to the Original Documents, being a Handbook for the Thirteenth Centenary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897.

MAYR-HARTING
Mayr-Harting, Henry. The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England. University Park (Pennsylvania): Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991 (3rd. ed.).

MEANEY
Meaney, Audrey L. 'The Ides of the Cotton Gnomic Poem'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

MEISSNER
Meissner, R. Die Kenningar der Skalden: ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Bonn & Leipzig, 1921.

MELLINKOFF
Mellinkoff, Ruth. 'Cain's monstrous progeny in Beowulf : part I, Noachic tradition'. Anglo-Saxon England 8 (1979).
-------. 'Cain's monstrous progeny in Beowulf : part II, Post-Diluvian survival'. Anglo-Saxon England  9 (1981).

METZNER
Metzner, Ralph. The Well of Remembrance: rediscovering the earth wisdom myths of northern Europe. Boston: Shambhala, 1994.

MILLER
Miller, Dean A. The Epic Hero. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

MINKOVA & STOCKWELL
Minkova, Donka & Robert P. Stockwell. 'Poetic Influence on Prose Word Order in Old English'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.

MINOR POEMS
ed. Dobbie, Elliott van Kirk. The Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 6. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942.

MITCHELL
Mitchell, Bruce. Old English Syntax. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

MITCHELL (X)
Mitchell, Bruce. '"Until the Dragon Comes...": Some Thoughts on Beowulf'. Neophilologus 47 (1963). [reprinted in Bruce Mitchell on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.]
-------. 'Postscript on Bede's mihi cantare habes'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 70 (1969).
-------. 'Two Syntactical Notes on Beowulf'. Neophilologus 52 (1968). [reprinted in Bruce Mitchell on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.]
-------. 'The Dangers of Disguise: Old English texts in modern punctuation'. Review of English Studies 31 (1980). [reprinted in Bruce Mitchell on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.]
-------. 'Beowulf, Lines 3074-3075: The Damnation of Beowulf?'. Poetica 13 (1982). [reprinted in Bruce Mitchell on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.]
-------. 'Cædmon's Hymn, Line 1: What is the Subject of Scylun or its Variants'. Leeds Studies in English 16 (1985).
-------. '1987: Postscript on Beowulf'. in Bruce Mitchell on Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.

MITCHELL & IRVINE
eds. Mitchell, Bruce and Susan Irvine. Beowulf Repunctuated. Kalamazoo: The Medieval Institute/Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies, Western Michigan University (=Old English Newsletter Subsidia 29), 2000.

MITCHELL & ROBINSON
ed. Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C. Robinson. 3182 lines of alliterative verse beginning Hwæt we gardena in geardagum - printed often, since Kemble (1833), under the title BEOWULF: an edition with relevant shorter texts. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

MITTMAN
Mittman, Asa Simon. 'Headless men and hungry monsters'. MS/presentation -- The Sarum Center/Stanford University Alumni Center, March 2003. [available online at: http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/John_Wilkes/Sarum/2003-03-Mittman-Headless-Men-and-Hungry-Monsters.pdf]

MÖLLER
ed. Möller, Hermann. Das Beowulfepos mit den übrigen Bruchstücken des altengl. Volksepos in der ursprünglichen strophischen Form. Kiel: Lipsius & Tischer, 1883.

MOMMA
Momma, Haruko. 'The "Gnomic Formula" and Some Additions to Bliss's Old English Metrical System'. Notes & Queries 37 (1989).
-------. The Composition of Old English Poetry. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

MOMMSEN
ed. Mommsen, Theodor. Cassiodori Senatoris Variae. Berlin: Weidmann, 1894. (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctorum Antiquissimorum Tomus XII)

MORLAND
Morland, Laura. 'Cædmon and the Germanic Tradition'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack and Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.

MOORMAN
Moorman, Charles. 'The Essential Paganism of Beowulf'. Modern Language Quarterly 28 (1967).

MOSSÉ
Mossé, Fernand. A Handbook of Middle English. James A. Walker, trans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952 (5th. corrected & augmented printing, 1968).

MÜLLER
Müller, N. Die Mythen im Beowulf. Leipzig, 1878.

MÜLLENHOFF
Müllenhoff, Karl. 'Der Mythus von Beovulf'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Alterum und deutsche Literatur 7 (1849).
-------. 'Die innere Geschichte des Beowulfs'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Alterum und deutsche Literatur 14 (1869).
-------. Beovulf, Untersuchungen über das angelsächsische Epos und die älteste Geschichte der germanischen Seevolker. Berlin: Weidmannisch Buchhandlung, 1889.

MURPHY
Murphy, G. Ronald, S.J. The Saxon Savior: the transformation of the Gospel in the ninth-century Heliand. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

MURRAY
Murray, Alexander Callander. 'Beowulf, the Danish Invasions, and Royal Genealogy'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd. ed., 1997).

NAGY
Nagy, Gregory. The Best of the Achaeans: concepts of the hero in archaic Greek poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.
-------. 'Epic as Genre'. in Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: the poetics of community. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus & Susanne Wofford, eds. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

NAPIER
ed. Napier, A.S. Old English Glosses. Oxford, 1900.

NEWTON
Newton, Sam. The Origins of Beowulf and the pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Woodbridge (Suffolk): The Boydell Press, 1993.

NEWTON (X)
Newton, Sam. 'Beowulf and the East Anglian Royal Pedigree'. in The Age of Sutton Hoo. M.O.H. Carver, ed. Woodbridge (Suffolk): Boydell, 1992.
-------. 'In Defence of the Wuffings: a review of Martin Carver's Sutton Hoo : Burial Ground of Kings? (British Museum, 1998)'.   Newsletter of Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History 50 (2000). [also available online - click here]

NIBELUNGENLIED
ed. Lachmann, Karl.  Der Nibelungen Noth und die Klage. Berlin: Reimer, 1826 (5th ed., 1878; reprinted, Hamburg: Robert Mulich, 1948).
ed. Hatto, A.T.  Nibelungenlied. [English translation only] Harmondsworth (Middlesex): Penguin, 1962.

NICHODEMUS (/NICODEMUS)
See under Cross et al. above

NILES
Niles, John D. Beowulf: the poem and its traditions. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1983.
-------. 'Special Approaches: Teaching Beowulf as Performance'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. 'Skaldic Technique in Brunanburh'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.
-------. 'Pagan survivals and popular belief'. in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Malcolm Godden & Michael Lapidge, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
-------. 'Maldon and Mythopoesis'. Mediaevalia 17 (1994 for 1991). [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
-------. 'Myth and History'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. 'Reconceiving Beowulf: poetry as social praxis'. College English 61.2 (1998).

NOOTEBOOM
Nootebboom, Sieb. 'The Prosody of Speech: Melody and Rhythm'. in The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. William J. Hardcastle & John Laver, eds. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

NORMAN
ed. Norman, F. Waldere. London, 1933.

NORTH
North, Richard. Heathen Gods in Old English Literature. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

NORTON ANTHOLOGY
ed. Abrams, M.H. et al.(eds) The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton, 1986 (5th ed.).

O'DONNELL
O'Donnell, Daniel Paul. 'The Collective Sense of Concrete Singular Nouns in Beowulf: Emendations of Sense'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 92 (1991).
-------. Manuscript Variation in Multiple Recension Old English Poetic Texts: the Technical Problem and Poetic Art. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Yale University, 1996a. Supervisor: Fred C. Robinson. Electronic Reprint, Version 2.0. [available online as Adobe .PDF].
-------. 'A Northumbrian Version of "Cædmon's Hymn" (eordu-recension) in Brussels Bibliothèque Royale Manuscript 8245-57 ff.62r2-v1: Identification, Edition, and Filiation'. in Beda Venerabilis: Historian, Monk and Northumbrian. L.A.R.J. Houwen & A.A. MacDonald, eds. Groningen (Netherlands): Egbert Forsten, 1996b.
-------. 'The Accuracy of the "St Petersburg Bede"'. Notes and Queries 247 (2002).

O'KEEFFE
O'Keeffe, Katherine O'Brien. 'Orality and the Developing Text of Cædmon's Hymn'. Speculum 62 (1987) [reprinted, in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994 (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001) & in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
-------. 'Heroic values and Christian ethics'. in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Malcolm Godden & Michael Lapidge, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
-------. 'Editing and the Material Text'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.
-------. 'Diction, Variation, the Formula'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997a.
-------. 'Introduction'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997b.

O'LOUGHLIN
O'Loughlin, J.L.N. 'Sutton Hoo: the evidence of the documents'. Medieval Archaeology 8 (1964).

OAKESHOTT
Oakeshott, R. Ewart. The Archaeology of Weapons: arms & armour from prehistory to the age of chivalry. London: Lutterworth Press, 1960 (rev. ed., New York: Barnes & Noble, 1994).

ODYSSEY
see Homer above.

OED
Murray, James, Henry Bradley, William Craigie, C.T. Onions, Robert Burchfield, & Edmund Weiner (eds.). Oxford English Dictionary on CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press, 1999 [2nd. ed.]

OHTHERE & WULFSTAN
Ohthere & Wulfstan. 'The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan'. (from Old English translation of Orosius) in Sweet's 1st Reader (see below).

OLRIK
Olrik, Axel. Danmarks heltedigtning: en oldtidsstudie. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Gad, 1903-1910.
-------. Principles for Oral Narrative Research. Kirsten Wolf & Jody Jensen, trans. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1992. [trans. of Nogle Grundsætninger for Sagnforskning. Copenhagen: Det Schønbergske Forlag, 1921.]
-------. Viking Civilization. Jacob Wittmer Hartmann & Hanna Astrup Larsen, trans. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1930. [trans. of Nordisk Aandsliv i Vikingetid og Tidlig Middelalder. Hans Ellekilde, rev. ed. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel Nordisk Forlag, 1927.]

OLSEN
Olsen, Alexandra Hennessey. '"Þurs" and "Þyrs": Giants and the Date of Beowulf'. In Geardagum 6 (1984).
-------. 'Gender Roles'. inA Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. 'Beowulf'. in Teaching Oral Traditions. John Miles Foley, ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.

ONG
Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: the technologizing of the word. London: Metheun, 1982 (reprinted, London: Routledge, 1988).

ORCHARD
Orchard, Andy. Pride and Prodigies: studies in the monsters of the Beowulf-manuscript. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1985. [rev. ed., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995].
-------. The Poetic Art of Aldhelm. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
-------. 'Oral tradition'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997a.
-------. Cassell Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. London: Cassell, 1997b.
-------. A Critical Companion to Beowulf. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2003.

ORTNIT
Amelung, A. & O. Jänicke, eds. Ortnit und die Wolfdietriche. Berlin, 1871.

OSBORN
Osborn, Marijane. 'Some Uses of Ambiguity in Beowulf'. Thoth 10 (1969).
-------. 'The Great Feud: scriptural history and strife in Beowulf'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 93 (1978). [reprinted in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000]
-------. 'Teaching Beowulf in Old English to Graduate Students - III (Opening Strategies)'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. '"Verbal Sea Charts" and Beowulf's Approach to Denmark'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.
-------. 'Translations, Versions, Illustrations'. in A Beowulf Handbook John D. Niles & Robert Bjork, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. '"The Wealth They Left Us": Two Women Author Themselves through Others' Lives in Beowulf'. Philological Quarterly 78 (1999). reprinted with revisions, The Heroic Age 5 (2001). [also available online here].

OVERING
Overing, Gillian R. 'The Women of Beowulf : a context for interpretation'. in The Beowulf Reader. Peter S. Baker, ed. New York: Garland, 2000.
-------. Language, Sign, and Gender in Beowulf. Carbondale & Edwardsville (Illinois): Southern Illinois University Press, 1990.
-------. 'Recent Writing on Old English: a response'. Æstel 1 (1993). [also available online at: http://members.aol.com/mcnelis/AEstel1/Overing1.html]

OVERING & OSBORN
Overing, Gillian R. & Marijane Osborn. Landscape of Desire: partial stories of the medieval Scandinavian world. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

OWEN
Owen, Olwyn. 'The strange beast that is the English Urnes style'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

PAGE
Page, Raymond Ian. Life in Anglo-Saxon England. London: Batsford, 1970.
-------. An Introduction to English Runes. London: Methuen, 1973 [2nd ed., Woodbridge (Suffolk): Boydell Press, 1999].
-------. 'The Audience of Beowulf and the Vikings'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).

PAINTER
Painter, T.J. 'Chemical and Microbiological Aspects of the Preservation Process in Sphagnum Peat'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

PANZER
Panzer, Friedrich. Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte - vol 1: Beowulf. Munich: C.H. Beck'sche Verlagbuchhandlung, 1910.

PARIS PSALTER
ed. Krapp, George Philip. The Paris Psalter and the Meters of Boethius. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 5. New York: Columbia University Press, 1932.

PARKS
Parks, Ward. 'The Traditional Narrator in Beowulf and Homer'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.

PARRY
Parry, Milman. 'Whole Formulaic Verses in Greek and Southslavic Heroic Song'. Transactions of the American Philological Association 64 (1933).
-------. Serbocroatian Heroic Songs, vol. 1, Novi Pazar: English Traditions. collected by M. Parry. A.B. Lord, trans. Cambridge, Massachusetts & Belgrade: Harvard University Press and Serbian Academy of Sciences, 1954.

PARSONS
Parsons, David N. 'How long did the Scandinavian language survive in England? Again'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

PASTERNAK
Pasternack, Carol Braun. 'Post-structuralist theories: the subject and the text'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

PAYNE
Payne, F. Anne. 'The Danes' Prayers to the "Gastbona" in Beowulf'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 80 (1979).

PETER
Peter, Isiah Sundarum. The Anglo-Saxon Epic as exemplified by Beowulf in the light of the Indian Epic the Rámáyana. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1930.

PETERS
Peters, R.A. 'OE Ælf, -Ælf, Ælfen, -Ælfen'. Philological Quarterly (1963).

PETERSEN
Petersen, Jan. De Norske Vikingesverd. Oslo, 1919 (Videnskaps Skrifter, ii, Hist.-Filos. 1).

PFAFF
Pfaff, Richard W. 'N.R. Ker and the Study of English Medieval Manuscripts'. in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994 (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001).

PHILLPOTTS
Phillpotts, (Dame) Bertha S. 'Wyrd and Providence in Anglo-Saxon Thought'. Essays and Studies 13 (1928). [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]
-------. Edda and Saga. Home University Library of Modern Knowledge. London: Thornton Butterworth, 1931.

PINTZUK
Pintzuk, Susan. Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Word Order. New York & London: Garland, 1999 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1991).
-------. 'Verb-Object Order in Old English: variation as grammatical competition'.  in Syntactic Effects of Morphological Change. D.W. Lightfoot, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

PINTZUK & KROCH
Pintzuk, Susan & Anthony Kroch. 'The Rightward Movement of Complements and Adjuncts in the Old English of Beowulf'. Language Variation and Change 1.2 (1989).

PLEINER
Pleiner, Radomir. The Celtic Sword. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

POETRY ENCYCLOPEDIA (or PEPP)
ed. Preminger, Alex; Frank J. Warnke and O.B. Hardison, Jr. Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics. Princeton (New Jersey): Princeton University Press, 1965 (enlarged ed., 1974).

POKORNY
Pokorny, Julius. Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern: Francke, 1959.

POLLINGTON
Pollington, Stephen. Wordcraft: New English to Old English Dictionary and Thesaurus. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1992 (rev. & expanded ed., 1996).
-------. The English Warrior: from earliest times to 1066. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1996 (rev. ed. 2002).
-------. Leechcraft: early English charms, plantlore and healing. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 2000.

POLOMÉ
Polomé, Edgar C. 'Germanic and the other Indo-European languages'. in Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic. Frans van Coetsem & Herbert L. Kufner, eds. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1972.
-------. 'Old Norse religious terminology in Indo-European perspective'. The Nordic Languages and Modern Linguistics 2.13 (1975). [reprinted in Language, Society, and Paleoculture: essays by Edgar C. Polomé. Anwar S. Dil, ed. Stanford (California): Stanford Uni. Press, 1982.]
-------. 'A Few Thoughts About Reconstructing Indo-European Culture and Religion'. Journal of the Dept. of English (University of Calcutta) 14 (1978). [reprinted in Language, Society, and Paleoculture: essays by Edgar C. Polomé. Anwar S. Dil, ed. Stanford (California): Stanford Uni. Press, 1982.]
-------. 'Indo-European Culture, with Special Attention to Religion'. in The Indo-Europeans in the Fourth and Third Millennia. E.C. Polomé, ed. Ann Arbor (Michigan): Karoma, 1982. [reprinted in Language, Society, and Paleoculture: essays by Edgar C. Polomé. Anwar S. Dil, ed. Stanford (California): Stanford Uni. Press, 1982.]
-------. Essays on Germanic Religion. Journal of Indo-European Studies monograph, 6. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1989.
-------. 'Linguistic Paleontology: migration theory, prehistory, and archeology correlated with linguistic data'. in Research Guide on Language Change. E.C. Polomé, ed. Trends in Linguistics - studies and monographs, 48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990a.
-------. 'Etymology'. in Research Guide on Language Change. E.C. Polomé, ed. Trends in Linguistics - studies and monographs, 48. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990b.

POPE
Pope, John C. The Rhythm of Beowulf: an interpretation of the normal and hypermetric verse-forms in Old English poetry. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale Uni. Press, 1942 (2nd ed., 1966).

POPE (X)
Pope, John C. 'On the Date of Composition of Beowulf'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).
-------. 'Beowulf 505, 'gehedde' and the Pretensions of Unferth'. in Modes of Interpretation in Old English Literature: essays in honour of Stanley B. Greenfield. P.R. Brown, G.R. Crampton, & F.C. Robinson, eds. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986. [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology.R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.]

PORTER, D.C.
Porter, Dorothy Carr. 'The Social Centrality of Women in Beowulf : a new context'. The Heroic Age 5 (2001). [available online here].

PORTER, E.
Porter, Enid. The Folklore of East Anglia. London: B.T. Batsford, 1974.

PORTER, J.
ed. Porter, John. Beowulf: text and translation. Hockwold-cum-Wilton (Norfolk): Anglo-Saxon Books, 1991.

PRESCOTT
Prescott, Andrew. 'The Electronic Beowulf and Digital Restoration'. Literary and Linguistic Computing 12 (1997). [also available online--click here]
-------. '"Their Present Miserable State of Cremation": the Restoration of the Cotton Library'. in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy. C.J. Wright, ed. London: British Library Publications, 1997. [also available online--click here]

PROKOSCH
Prokosh, Eduard. A Comparative Germanic Grammar. William Dwight Whitney linguistic series. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America, 1939.

PROPP
Propp, Vladimir. The Morphology of the Folktale. Laurence Scott, trans. L.A. Wagner, ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968.

PUHVEL
Puhvel, Jaan. 'The Warrior at Stake'. in Homage to Georges Dumézil. E.C. Polomé, ed. Journal of Indo-European Studies monograph, 3. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1982.
-------. Comparative Mythology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

PUHVEL, M.
Puhvel, Martin. 'The Melting of the Giant-Wrought Sword in Beowulf'. English Language Notes 7 (1969).

PULSIANO & McGOWAN
Pulsiano, Phillip and Joseph McGowan. 'Fyrd, Here, and the Dating of Beowulf'. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 23 (1990).

QUIRK
Quirk, Lord Randolph. 'Poetic Language and Old English Metre'. in Old English and Norse Studies. Arthur Brown & Peter Foote, eds. London: Methuen, 1963.

QUIRK & WRENN
Quirk, Randolph (The Lord Quirk) and C.L. Wrenn. An Old English Grammar. London: Methuen, 1957.

RAHTZ
Rahtz, Philip. 'Buildings and rural settlement'. inThe Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. David Wilson, ed. London: Methuen, 1976.

RAMSEY
Ramsey, Lee C. 'The Sea-Voyages in Beowulf'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 72 (1971).

RAUCH
Rauch, Irmengard. The Old Saxon Language: grammar, epic narrative, linguistic interference. Berkeley Models of Grammars, 1. New York: Peter Lang, 1992.

RAUER
Rauer, Christine. Beowulf and the Dragon: Parallels and Analogues. Cambridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

RAUSING
Rausing, Gad. 'Beowulf, Ynglingatal, and the Ynglinga Saga - Fiction or History?'. Fornvännen 80 (1985).  
[also available online--click here].
-------. 'A comment on Beowulf - Gutarnas nationalepos by Tore Gannholm '. Fornvännen 90 (1995). [also available online--click here]

RAY
Ray, Basant Kumar. Old English Morphology and Indo-European: morphology of the Old English Noun and the Verb traced from Pro-ethnic Indo-Germanic. Dacca (East Bengal): University of Dacca, 1931. [reprinted, Delhi: Sharada, 1996]

RG-VEDA
Rgveda Samhitá - mandala 1-10 (Sanskrit text, introduction, notes & index of verses). [Sanskrit & Hindi] Kanhaiya Lal Joshi, ed. Jaikrishnadas Sanskrit Series, 19. Varanasi: Chukhambha Orientalia, 2000.
Rig Veda: a metrically restored text with an introduction and notes. [Sanskrit text only, roman] Barend A. van Nooten & Gary B. Holland, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1994.

RENDALL (/Chaucer Studios)
Rendall, Tom (director & voice-actor), with Harvey DeRoo, Robert Stevick, Tom Burton, Thomas Chase, Kamal Fox, Mary-Ann Stouck, Stephen Partridge (voice actors). Beowulf: a dramatic reading in the original language. [Old English recording; 3 CDs]. supported by University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia) & Brigham Young University, Provo (Utah) [w/ additional support from University of Macau, Taipa (Macau)]. Recorded at Simon Fraser University Audio/Visual Centre, British Columbia (Canada) --
Chaucer Studios / Australian & New Zealand Association for Medieval & Renaissance Studies, 2000.

RENOIR
Renoir, Alain. 'The Heroic Oath in Beowulf, the Chanson de Roland, and the Nibelungenlied'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.
-------. 'Teaching Beowulf in Old English to Mixed Undergraduate and Graduate Classes - III'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. A Key to Old Poems: the oral-formulaic approach to the interpretation of West-Germanic verse. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988.

RICHARDS
Richards, Julian D. 'Boundaries and cult centres: viking burial in Derbyshire'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001a.
-------. 'Finding the Vikings: the search for Anglo-Scandinavian rural settlement in the northern Danelaw'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001b.

RICHARDS & STANFIELD
Richards, Mary P. & B. Jane Stanfield. 'Concepts of Anglo-Saxon Women in the Laws'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

RICHMAN
Richman, Gerald. 'Artful Slipping in Old English'. Neophilologus 70 (1986).
-------. 'Speaker and Speech Boundaries in the Wanderer.' Journal of English and Germanic Philology 81 (1982).
-------. 'Thucydides and The Battle of Maldon'. In Geardagum 20 (1999).
-------. 'Poet and Scop in Beowulf'. In Geardagum 21 (2000).

RIEGER
ed. Rieger, Max. Alt- und angelsächsisches Lesebuch. Giessen: Ricker, 1861.

RIEGER (X)
-------. 'Zum Beowulf'. Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie 3 (1871).
-------. 'Die alt- und angelsächsische Verskunst'. Zeitschrift für Deutsche Philologie 7 (1876).

THE RIMING POEM
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

RINGLER
Ringler, Richard N.  'Him séo wén geléah: The Design for Irony in Grendel's Last Visit to Heorot'. Speculum 41 (1966) [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991].

ROBERTS & KAY
ed. Roberts, Jane & Christian Kay with Lynne Grundy. A Thesaurus of Old English. London: King's College, London Mediaeval Studies XI, 1995 (2nd ed. - Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000).

ROBERTSON
Robertson, D.W., Jr. 'The Doctrine of Charity in Mediaeval Literary Gardens: a topical approach through symbolism and allegory'. Speculum 26 (1951).

ROBINSON
Robinson, Fred C. 'Notes on the Old English Exodus'. Anglia 90 (1962). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Is Wealhðeow a Prince's Daughter?'. English Studies 45 (1964). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Beowulf's Retreat from Frisia: some textual problems in lines 2361-2362'. Studies in Philology 62 (1965). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Two Non-Cruces in Beowulf'. in Tennessee Studies in Literature. vol. 11. Lexington: University of Tennessee, 1966a. [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Beowulf, lines 1917-1919'. Notes and Queries 13 (1966b). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Notes and Emendations to Old English Poetic Texts'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 67 (1966c). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'The Old English Genesis, lines 1136-1137'. Archiv für Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 204 (1967). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'The American Element in Beowulf'. English Studies 49 (1968). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'The Devil's Account of the Next World: an anecdote from Old English homiletic literature'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 73 (1972). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Elements of the Marvellous in the Characterization of Beowulf: a reconsideration of the textual evidence'. in Old English Studies in Honour of John C. Pope. ed. R.B. Burlin & E.B. Irving. Toronto: Uni. of Toronto Press, 1974.
-------. 'God, Death, and Loyalty in The Battle of Maldon'. in J.R.R. Tolkien, Scholar and Storyteller: essays in memoriam. Mary Salu & Robert T. Farrell, eds. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press, 1979. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]
-------. 'Old English Literature in Its Most Immediate Context'. in Old English Literature in Context: ten essays. John D. Niles, ed. Woodbridge (Suffolk): 1980. [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. '"Bede's" Envoi to the Old English History: an experiment in editing'. Studies in Philology 78 (1981). [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Teaching the Backgrounds: History, Religion, Culture'. in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.
-------. Beowulf and the Appositive Style. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.
-------. 'Consider the Source: Medieval Texts and Medieval Manuscripts'. in Medieval Perspectives: papers from the twelfth annual conference of the Southeastern Medieval Association. Merritt Blakeslee, William Provost & Katharina Wilson, eds. Richmond: Eastern Kentucky University, 1987. [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Beowulf'. in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature. Malcolm Godden & Michael Lapidge, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
-------. 'Why is Grendel's Not Greeting the Gifstol a Wræc Micel?' in Words, Texts and Manuscripts: studies in Anglo-Saxon culture presented to Helmut Gneuss on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday. Michael Korhammmer, ed. Cambridge, 1992. [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Textual Notes on Beowulf'. in Anglo-Saxonica. Beiträge zur Vor- und Frümgeschichte der englische Sprache: Festschrift für Hans Schabram zur 65. Geburtstag. K. Grinda & C.-D. Wetzel, eds. Munich, 1993. [reprinted in, Robinson, Fred C. The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.]
-------. 'Eve's "Weaker" Mind in Genesis B, line 590'. in The Editing of Old English. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

RODRIGUES
ed. Rodrigues, Louis J. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburh: a modern English verse rendering. London: Runetree Press, 2002.

ROESDAHL
Roesdahl, Else. 'Princely Burial in Scandinavia at the Time of the Conversion'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

ROSE
Rose, Gregory F. 'A Look Back at Kevin S. Kiernan's Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript - the Kiernan Theory revisited: Beowulf at the Court of Cnut?'. Envoi 6.2 (1997). [also available online as Adobe .pdf file: http://members.aol.com/ENVOIjrnl2/Vol_6_2/Rose_6_2.pdf]

ROSIER
Rosier, James E. 'The Uses of Association: Hands and Feasts in Beowulf'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 78 (1963).

ROSS
Ross, Malcolm. 'Diagnosing prehistoric language contact'. in Motives for Language Change. Raymond Hickey, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

THE RUIN
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

RUMBLE
Rumble, Alexander R. 'Using Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts'. in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: basic readings. Mary P. Richards, ed. New York: Garland, 1994a. (reprinted, New York: Routledge, 2001).
-------. 'Palaeography and the Editing of Old English Texts'. in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994b.
-------. 'Introduction: Cnut in context'. in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994c.

RUSSELL
Russell, James C. The Germanization of Early Medieval Christianity: a sociohistorical approach to religious transformation. New York: Oxford Uni. Press, 1994.

RUSSOM
Russom, Geoffrey. 'Artful Avoidance of the Useful Phrase in Beowulf, The Battle of Maldon, and Fates of the Apostles'. Studies in Philology 75 (1978). [reprinted in Interpretations of   Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]
-------. Old English Metre and Linguistic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
-------. Beowulf and Old Germanic Metre. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England, 23. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
-------. 'Dating Criteria for Old English Poems'. in Studies in the History of the English Language: a millennial perspective. D. Minkova & R. Stockwell, eds. Topics in English Linguistics, 39. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002.

RYPINS
Rypins, Stanley (ed.) - see above under MS. Cotton Vitellius A.xv 3 Prose Texts.

van der SANDEN
Van der Sanden, W.A.B. 'Bog Bodies on the Continent: the developments since 1965, with special reference to the Netherlands'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

SARRAZIN
Sarrazin, Gregor. 'Beowulf und Kynewulf'. Anglia 9 (1886).

SAWYER
Sawyer, Peter. 'Ethelred II, Olaf Tryggvason, and the Conversion of Norway'. in Anglo-Scandinavian England: Norse-English relations in the period before the Conquest. John D. Niles & Mark Amodio, eds. Lanham (Maryland): University Press of America, 1989.
------- (with Birgit Sawyer). 'Cnut's Scandinavian empire' (with an appendix on 'The evidence of Scandinavian runic inscriptions'). in The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway. Alexander R. Rumble, ed. London: Leicester University Press, 1994.

SAX
Sax, William S. 'Worshiping Epic Villians: a Kaurava cult in the central Himalayas'. in Epic Traditions in the Contemporary World: the poetics of community. Margaret Beissinger, Jane Tylus & Susanne Wofford, eds. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

SAXO GRAMMATICUS
ed. Olrik, J. and H. Raeder. Saxonis Gesta Denorum. Copenhagen, 1931.
ed. Davidson, Hilda H.R. Ellis. Saxo Grammaticus: The History of the Danes - Books I-IX. trans. P. Fisher. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1979. [reprinted, Woodbridge (Suffolk): Boydell & Brewer, 1996].

SCHABRAM
Schabram, H. 'Stonc, Beowulf 2288'. in Festgabe für Hans Pinsker zum 70. Geburtstag. R. Acobian, ed. Vienna, 1979.

SCHAEFER
Schaefer, Ursula. 'Rhetoric and Style'. inA Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.

VON SCHAUBERT
ed. Heyne, Mortiz and revised by Levin Schücking. further revisions by Else von Schaubert. Beowulf. Paderborn: Schöningh, 1963 (18th ed.).

SCHILTZ
Schiltz, Guillaume. 'Funktionale Aspekte angelsächsischer Zaubersprüche'. paper given at 4. Studientag zum Englischen Mittelater (SEM IV), 2002. [available online as an Adobe .PDF file at: http://www.unibas.ch/anglist/schiltz/data/SEMiv.pdf]

SCHNEIDER
Schneider, Karl. Sophia Lectures on Beowulf. Shoichi Watanabe & Norio Tsuchiya, eds. Tokyo: Japan Science Society, 1986.

SCHOENFELD & SCHULMAN
Schoenfeld, Edward & Jana Schulman. 'Sutton Hoo: an economic assessment'. in Voyage to the Other World: the legacy of Sutton Hoo. Calvin B. Kendall & Peter S. Wells, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

SCRAGG
Scragg, D.G. 'Postscript: Quo Vadis, Editio?' in The Editing of Old English: papers from the 1990 Manchester Conference. D.G. Scragg & Paul E. Szarmach, eds. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.
-------. 'Source Study'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

SCHÜCKING
ed. Heyne, Moritz and revised by Levin L. Schücking. Beowulf. Paderborn: Schöningh, 1908 (8th ed.).

SCHÜCKING (X)
Schücking, Levin Ludwig. Beowulfs Rückkehr: eine kritische Studie. Studien zur englischen Philologie, 21. Halle: Verlag von Max Niemeyer, 1905.
-------. 'Altengl. scepen und die sogen. idg. Vokative-reste im Altengl.' Englische Studien 44 (1912).
-------. 'Wann entstand der Beowulf? Glossen, Zweifel und Fragen'. Beträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 42 (1917).
-------. 'Das Königsideal im Beowulf'. Modern Humanities Research Bulletin 3 (1929). [reprinted in translation as 'The Ideal of Kingship in Beowulf'. in An Anthology of Beowulf Criticism. L.E. Nicholson, ed. Notre Dame (Indiana): Notre Dame University Press, 1963.]
-------. 'Heldenstolz und Würde im Angelsächsichen, mit einem Anhang: Zur Charakterisierungstechnik im Beowulfepos'. Abhandlungen der Philologisch-historischen Klasse der sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Leipzig) 42.5 (1933).

SCULL
Scull, Christopher. 'Before Sutton Hoo: structures of power and society in early East Anglia'. in The Age of Sutton Hoo. ed. M. Carver. Woodbridge (Suffolk): The Boydell Press, 1992.

THE SEAFARER
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

SEDGEFIELD
ed. Sedgefield, Walter J. Beowulf: edited with introduction, bibliography, notes, glossary, and appendices. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1913 (2nd. rev. ed.).

SEEBOLD
Seebold, Elmar (ed.) - see Kluge above.

SEQUENTIA
see Bagby above.

SERJEANTSON
Serjeantson, Mary S. 'The Vocabulary of Folklore in Old and Middle English'. Folk-Lore 47 (1936).

SEVEN VIKING ROMANCES
[Arrow-Odd, King Gautrek, Halfdan Eysteinsson, Bosi and Herraud, Egil and Asmund, Thorstein Mansion-Might, Helgi Thorisson]
Pálsson, Hermann & Paul Edwards, trans. Seven Viking Romances. London: Penguin, 1985.

SEWELL
Sewell, W.A.P. 'A Reading in Beowulf'. Times Literary Supplement : 11 Sept. 1924.

SEX AETATES MUNDI
ed. Hogan, Edmund. The Irish Nennius from L. na Huidre. Royal Irish Academy Todd Lecture ser. 6. Dublin, 1895.
ed. Best, R.I. & Osborn Bergin. Lebor na Huidre. Dublin, 1929.

SIDWELL
Sidwell, Keith. Reading Medieval Latin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

SIEVERS
Sievers, Eduard. 'Zur Rhythmik des germanischen Alliterations-verses'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 10 (1885).
-------. 'Die Heimat des Beowulfsdichters'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 11 (1886).
-------. 'Beowulf und Saxo'. Bericht der Königl. sächs. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. (1895).
-------. Altergermanische Metrik. Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1893.
-------. 'Old Germanic Metrics and Old English Metrics'. in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. ed. J.B. Bessinger, Jr. & S.J. Kahrl. Hamden (Connecticut): Archon Books, 1968. [trans. of article in Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie II.2 (1905)].
-------. 'Gegenbemerkungen zum Beowulf'. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 36 (1910).

SIEVERS & BRUNNER
Sievers, Eduard and revised by Karl Brunner. Altenglische Grammatik nach der Angelsächsische Grammatik von Eduard Sievers: Neubearbeitet von Karl Brunner. [revision of Sievers' grammar by Brunner] Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1898 (rev. ed. 1950).
[Sievers, Eduard. Angelsächsische Grammatik. 3rd ed., 1898 (orig., 1882). trans. as An Old English Grammar. by Albert S. Cook. Boston, 1903. [reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1970]]

SIMPSON, Jacq.
Simpson, Jacqueline. 'The King's whetstone'. Antiquity 53 (1979).

SIMPSON, John
Simpson, John. 'Comparative Structural Analaysis of Three Ethical Questions in Beowulf, the Nibelungenlied, and the Chanson de Roland'. Journal of Indo-European Studies 3 (1975).

SISAM
Sisam, Kenneth. 'The Beowulf Manuscript'. Modern Language Review 11 (1916). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'The Compilation of the Beowulf Manuscript'. The Review of English Studies 10 (1934). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'The Authority of Old English Poetical Manuscripts'. The Review of English Studies 22 (1946). [reprinted in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.]
-------. 'Anglo-Saxon Royal Genealogies'. Proceedings of the British Academy 39 (1953a).
-------. 'The Exeter Book'. in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953b.
-------. 'Dialect Origins of the Earlier Old English Verse'. in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953c.
-------. 'The Publication of Alfred's Pastoral Care'. in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953d.
-------. 'Humfrey Wanley'. in Studies in the History of Old English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953e.

SHIPPEY
Shippey, Thomas A. 'The Fairy-Tale Structure of Beowulf'. Notes & Queries 214 (1969).
-------. 'Recent Writing on Old English'. Æstel 1 (1993). [also available online here: http://members.aol.com/mcnelis/AEstel1/Shippey1.html]
-------. 'Structure and Unity'. in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. 'Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulf and Elsewhere'.  The Heroic Age 5 (2001). [available online here].

SKEAT
Skeat, Walter W. 'On the Signification of the Monster Grendel in the Poem of Beowulf; with a Discussion of lines 2076-2100'. The Journal of Philology 15 (1886).
-------. English Dialects from the Eighth Century to the Present Day. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911.

SKLUTE
Sklute, L. John. 'Freoðuwebbe in Old English Poetry'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

SLADE
Slade, Benjamin. '...þrym gefrunon, ...helle gemundon: Indogermanic shruti and Christian smriti in the Epistemology of Beowulf'. Journal of Northern European Studies 1.1 (2004): 5-14. [available online here]
-------. 'Untydras ealle: Grendel, Cain, and Vrtra: Indo-European shruti and Christian smrti in Beowulf'. In Geardagum 27 (2007).

SMITH
Smith, A.H. 'The Photography of Manuscripts'. London Medieval Studies 1 (1938).

SMITHERS
Smithers, George V. The Making of Beowulf: Inaugural Lecture of the Professor of English Language Delivered in the Appleby Lecture Theatre on 18 May 1961. Durham: University of Durham Press, 1961.
-------. 'Destiny and the Heroic Warrior in Beowulf'. in Philological Essays: studies in Old and Middle English Language and Literature in Honor of Herbert Dean Merrit. James L. Rosier, ed. The Hague & Paris: Mouton, 1970.
-------. 'The Geats in Beowulf'. Durham University Journal 63.2 (1971).

SMYSER
Smyser, H.M. 'Ibn Fadlán's Account of the Rús with Some Commentary and Some Allusions to Beowulf'. in Franciplegius: medieval and linguistic studies in honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. J.B. Bessinger & R.P. Creed, eds. New York: New York University Press, 1965. [excerpts available online - click here]

SNORRI
Sturlason, Snorre. Heimskringla: the Norse King Sagas. [English trans. only] ed. & trans. S. Laing. London: J.M. Dent, 1930 (rev. ed. 1951).

SPEAKE
Speake, George. Anglo-Saxon Animal Art and Its Germanic Background. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. [also available online here].

STAFFORD
Stafford, Pauline A. Church and Society in the Age of Aelfric'. in The Old English Homily & Its Backgrounds. Paul E. Szarmach & Bernard F. Huppé, eds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1978.
-------. 'The King's Wife in Wessex, 800-1066'. in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Helen Damico & Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

STANLEY
Stanley, Eric G. 'Hæthenra Hyht in Beowulf'. in Studies in Old English Literature. S.B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.
-------. 'Beowulf'. in Continuations and Beginnings: studies in Old English literature. ed. E.G. Stanley. London: Nelson, 1966.
-------. The Search for Anglo-Saxon Paganism. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1975.
-------. 'The Date of Beowulf : some doubts and no conclusions'. in The Dating of Beowulf. Colin Chase, ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981 (2nd ed., 1997).
-------. 'Review of Kevin Kiernan's "Beowulf" and the "Beowulf" Manuscript'. Medium Ævum 53 (1984).
-------. 'Paleographical and Textual Deep Waters: <a> for <u> and <u> for <a>, <d> for <ð> and <ð> for <d> in Old English'. American Notes & Queries 15 (2002).

STENTON
Stenton, F.M. 'The East Anglian Kings of the Seventh Century'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

STEPHENS
Stephens, G. Two Leaves of King Waldere's Lay. Copenhagen & London, 1860.

STEVICK
Stevick, Robert D. 'Representing the Verbal Art of "Beowulf": Syntax & Meter'. published online at http://faculty.washington.edu/stevickr/graphotactics/verbal_art.html, 1999.

STJERNA
Stjerna, Knut. Essays on Questions Connected with the Old English Poem Beowulf. trans. from Swedish by J.R. Clark Hall. Viking Club extra series, vol. III. published for the Viking Club : Society for Northern Research (Uni. of London, King's College) - Coventry: Curtis & Beamish (Ltd.), 1912.

STOCKWELL & BARRITT
Stockwell, Robert P. and C.W. Barritt. 'Some Old English Graphemic-Phonemic Correspondences: ae, ea, and a'. Studies in Linguistics: Occasional Papers 4 (1951).
-------. 'The English Short Digraphs: some considerations'. Language 31 (1955).

STOCKWELL & MINKOVA
Stockwell, Robert P. and Donka Minkova. 'Poetic influence on prose word order in Old English'. in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. ed. F. Colman. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald, 1992.
-------. 'Prosody.' in A Beowulf Handbook. R.E. Bjork & J.D. Niles, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
-------. English Words: history and structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

STORMS
Storms, G. 'The Subjectivity of the Style of Beowulf'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.

STRÖMBÄCK
Strömbäck, Dag. 'Some Notes on the Nix in Older Nordic Tradition'. in Medieval Literature and Folklore Studies: essays in honor of Francis Lee Utley. J. Mandel & B.A. Rosenberg, eds. New Brunswick (New Jersey): Rutgers University Press, 1970.

STUHMILLER
Stuhmiller, Jacqueline. 'On the identity of the eotenas'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 100 (1999).

STYLES
Styles, Tania. 'Scandinavian elements in English place-names: some semantic problems'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

SUZUKI
Suzuki, Seiichi. 'Phonetic Values of Old English Vocalic Diphthongs'. Linguistics 20 (1982).
-------. 'Preference conditions for resolution in the meter of Beowulf: Kaluza's law reconsidered'. Modern Philology 93 (1996).
-------. The Metrical Organization of Beowulf: prototype and isomorphism. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996.

SWEET
ed. Sweet, Henry. The Oldest English Texts. EETS 83. Oxford: The Early English Text Society, 1885.

SWEET (X)
Sweet, Henry (with C.T. Onions). An Anglo-Saxon Reader in prose and verse with grammar, metre, notes and glossary. revised by C.T. Onions. 9th ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922. (1st ed., 1876)
------- (with T.F. Hoad). A Second Anglo-Saxon Reader: archaic and dialectal. revised by T.F. Hoad. 2nd ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. (1st ed., 1887)

SZARMACH
Szarmach, Paul E. 'The recovery of texts'. in Reading Old English texts. Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

SZEMERÉNYI
Szemerényi, Oswald J.L. Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

TACITUS
Tacitus. Tacitus: Dialogus - Agricola - Germania. W. Peterson & M. Hutton, eds. & trans. London & Cambridge, Mass.: Heinemann & Harvard Uni. Press, 1914.

TALBOT
ed. & trans. Talbot, C.H. The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany: being the lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Sturm, Leoba and Lebuin, together with the Hodoeporicon of St. Willibald and a selection from the correspondence of St. Boniface. London & New York: Sheen & Ward, 1954.

TAYLOR
Taylor, Paul Beekman. 'Heorot, Earth, and Ásgarðr : Christian Poetry and Pagan Myth'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998a. [revision of 'Heorot, Earth and Asgard: Christian Poetry and Pagan Myth'. Tennessee Studies in Literature 11 (1966).]
-------. 'Vestiges of Germanic Ritual Charms in Beowulf'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998b. [revision of 'Some Vestiges of Ritual Charms in Beowulf'. Journal of Popular Culture 1 (1967)].
-------. 'Searoniðas: etymology, magic and poetry'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998c. [revision of 'Searoniðas; Old Norse Magic and Old English Verse'. Studies in Philology 80 (1983).]
-------. 'Swords and Words: Grendel and the Norse Þursar'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998d. [revision of 'Grendel's Monstrous Acts'. In Geardagum 6 (1984).]
-------. 'The Traditional Northern Vocabulary of Treasure in Beowulf'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998e. [revision of 'The Traditional Language of Treasure in Beowulf'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 85 (1986).]
-------. 'Loki in England: the earliest Norse-English literary link'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998f. [revision of 'Logoþorr and Loður: the literary contexts'. in Studies in Honour of René Derolez M. Simon-Vanderbergen, ed. Ghent (Belgium): Englisches Seminar, 1987.]
-------. 'Seizing the Etymological Force in Northern Names'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998g. [revision of (1)'Some Uses of Etymology in the Reading of Old Germanic Texts'. in Hermeneutics and Medieval Culture. Patrick J. Gallacher & Helen Damico, eds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989. & (2)'Onomastics and Propaganda in Brunanburh'. American Notes & Queries 7 (1994).]
-------. 'Hroðgar and the Friends of Yng'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998h. [revision of 'The Epithetical Style of Beowulf'. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 91 (1990).]
-------. 'Nordic Sacral Kingship in Beowulf'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998i. [revision of 'The Language of Sacral Kingship in Beowulf'. Studia Neophilologica 66 (1994).]
-------. 'Female Names and Bodies as Cover on Northern Landscapes'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998j. [revision of 'Figures of Female Cover on Medieval Germanic Landscapes'. in Essays in Honor of Raymond P. Tripp, Jr. Loren C. Gruber, ed. Lewiston (New York): Edwin Mellon, 1997.]
-------. 'The Burnings of Beowulf and Skarpheðin'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998k.
-------. 'Bilingual Praise of Æþelstan'. in Taylor, Paul Beekman, Sharing Story: Medieval Norse-English Literary Relationships. New York: AMS, 1998l.

TAYLOR & SALUS
Taylor, Paul Beekman & P.H. Salus. 'Old English ALF WALDA'. Neophilologus 66 (1982).

THORKELIN
ed. Thorkelin, Grímur Jónsson. Beowulf. De Danorum rebus gestis secul. III IV. Poëma danicum dialecto anglo-saxonica. Ex bibliotheca Cottoniana Musaei britannici edidit versione lat. et indicibus auxit Grim. Johnson Thorkelin. Copenhagen: Rangel, 1815.

THORKELIN A & B
Colour fascimiles in Kiernan et al. (see above)

THORKELIN (X)
Thorkelin, Grímur Jónsson. 'Svar til "Et Par Ord om det nys udkomne angelsaxiske Digt" i Skilderiets No. 60'. Nyeste Skilderie af Kjöbenhavn 67-68 (1816).

THORMANN
Thormann, Janet. The Poetics of Absence: "The Lament of the Sole Survivor" in Beowulf'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley, ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.

THORPE
ed. Thorpe, Benjamin. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, The Scop or Gleeman's Tale, and The Fight at Finnesburg. London: J.R. Smith, 1875 (2nd ed.)

THORPE (X)
ed. Thorpe, Benjamin. Codex Exoniensis: a collection of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. London, 1842.

THUNDY
Thundy, Zacharias P. 'The Qur'an: source or analogue of Bede's Caedmon Story?' Islamic Culture (Hyderabad, India) 63(1989).
-------. Millennium: Apocalypse and Antichrist and Old English Monsters c. 1000 A.D. Notre Dame (Indiana, USA): Cross Cultural Publications, 1998.

TICHENELL
Tichenell, Elsa-Brita. The Masks of Odin: Wisdom of the Ancient Norse. Pasadena (California): Theosophical University Press, 1985.

TIMMER
Timmer, B.J. 'Wyrd in Anglo-Saxon Prose and Poetry'. Neophilologus 26 (1940). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Kahrl, eds. Hamden (Connecticut): Archon, 1968.]

TOLKIEN
Tolkien, J.R.R. 'Beowulf : the Monsters and the Critics'. Proceedings of the British Academy 22 (1936). [reprinted in Interpretations of Beowulf: a critical anthology. R.D. Fulk, ed. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana Uni. Press, 1991.]
-------. 'The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son'. Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association 6 (1953): 1-18 [reprinted in The TolkienReader. New York: Ballatine, 1966].
-------. 'On Fairy-Stories'. in Tree and Leaf. London: Allen & Unwin, 1964 [reprinted in The Tolkien Reader. New York: Ballatine, 1966].
-------, ed. & trans. Finn and Hengest: the fragment and the episode. Alan Bliss, ed. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982. [reprinted, London: HarperCollins, 1998]

TONSFELDT
Tonsfeldt, H. Ward. 'Ring Structure in Beowulf'. Neophilologus 61 (1977).

TOON
Toon, Thomas E. 'Old English Dialects'. in The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 1: the beginnings to 1066. Richard M. Hogg, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

TOWNEND
Townend, Matthew. Language and History in Viking Age England: linguistic relations between speakers of Old Norse and Old English. University of York - Studies in the Early Middle Ages, 6. Turnhout (Belgium): Brepols, 2002.

TRASK
ed. Trask, Richard M. Beowulf and Judith: two heroes. Lanham (Maryland) & Oxford: University Press of America, 1998.

TRAUGOTT
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs. 'Syntax'. in The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 1: the beginnings to 1066. Richard M. Hogg, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

TRAUTMANN
ed. Trautmann, Moritz. Das Beowulflied. Als Anhang das Finn-Bruchstück und die Waldhere-Bruchstücke. (Bonn. B. xvi). Bonn, 1904.

TRAUTMANN (X)
Trautmann, Moritz. Breichtigungne, Vermutungen und Erklärungen zum Beowulf. Erste Häfte. (Bonn. B. ii, pp. 121-92). Bonn, 1899.

TRIPP
Tripp, Raymond P., Jr. More About the Fight with the Dragon: Beowulf 2208b-3182, commentary, edition and translation. Lanham (Maryland): University Book Press of America, 1983.

TRIPP (X)
Tripp, Raymond P., Jr. 'The Exemplary Role of Hrothgar and Heorot'. Philological Quarterly 56 (1977).
-------. 'The Restoration of Beowulf 2768b and 2771a, and Wiglaf's entrance into the barrow'. English Language Notes 15 (1978).
-------. 'The Restoration of Beowulf 2781a: hat ne forhogode ("did not despise heat")'. Modern Philology 78 (1980).
-------. 'Recent Books on Beowulf'. Essays in Medieval Studies 2 (1985). [also available online at: http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol2/tripp.html]
-------. 'Beowulf 1314a: The Hero as Alfwalda, "Ruler of Elves"'. Neophilologus 70 (1986).
-------. 'Beowulf 1834b, garholt : "spear-wood", wordplay and plowshares'. In Geardagum 8 (1987).
-------. 'Did Beowulf Have an "Inglorious Youth"?'. Studia Neophilologica 61 (1989).
-------. Literary Essays on Language and Meaning in the Poem Called Beowulf: Beowulfiana Literaria. Lewiston (New York): Edwin Mellon, 1992.
-------. 'Bad Breath at the Barrow (Beowulf 2288a: Stonc ða æfter stane): the implications of a homiletic perspective'. In Geardagum 20 (1999a).
-------. 'No Rest for the Wicked, a new homiletic reading of Grendel's attack'. Publications of the Medieval Association of the MidWest 6 (1999b).
-------. 'The Homiletic Sense of Time in Beowulf'. In Geardagum 21 (2000).
-------. 'Summing Up the Dragon Episode: an apophatic reading of Beowulf 3058-75'. In Geardagum 22 (2001).
-------. 'The Dragon King of Beowulf'. Peter J. Fields, ed. In Geardagum 25 (2005).
-------. 'The Restoration of Beowulf 2221b: Wyrmhorda cræft and the Identity of the Thief'. In Geardagum 27 (2007).

TURNER, R.C.
Turner, R.C. 'Recent Research into British Bog Bodies'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995a.
-------. 'The Lindow Man Phenomenon: ancient and modern'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995b.
-------. '[Gazetteer of Bog Bodies in the British Isles:] Britain'. in Bog Bodies: new discoveries and new perspectives. R.C. Turner & R.G. Scaife, eds. London: British Museum Press, 1995c.

TURVILLE-PETRE
Turville-Petre, G. 'Legends of England in Icelandic Manuscripts'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

TYLER
Tyler, Lee Edgar. 'The Heroic Oath of Hildebrand'. in De Gustibus: essays for Alain Renoir. John Miles Foley,ed. with J. Chris Womack & Whitney A. Womack, asst. eds. New York: Garland, 1992.

UTLEY
Utley, Frances Lee. 'The Flood Narrative in the Junius Manuscript and in Baltic Literature'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Stanley B. Greenfield, ed. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1963.

VERCELLI BOOK
ed. Krapp, George Philip. The Vercelli Book. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1932.

VERMES
Vermes, Geza (ed.) - see Dead Sea Scrolls above.

VICKMAN
Vickman, Jeffrey (with preface by R.D. Fulk). A Metrical Concordance to Beowulf. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1990.

VIGFÚSSON
Vigfússon, Guðbrandur. 'Prolegomena'. in Sturlunga saga. G. Vigfússon, ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1878.

VINCE
Vince, Alan. 'Lincoln in the Viking Age'. in Vikings and the Danelaw: select papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, Nottingham and York, 21-30 August 1997. James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch & David N. Parsons, eds. Oxford: Oxbow, 2001.

de VINGO
de Vingo, Paolo. 'Personal Equipment and Fighting Techniques Among the Anglo-Saxon Population in Northern Europe During the Early Middle Ages'. Ms., University of Torino (Italy) / The Heroic Age 6 (2003). [available online here].

VISION OF ST. PAUL
ed. Healey, Antonette DiPaolo. The Old English Vision of St. Paul. Speculum Anniversary Monograph, 2. Cambridge (Massachusetts): The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1978.

VISWANATHAN
Viswanathan, S. 'On The Melting of the Sword: wæl-rápas and the Engraving on the Sword-Hilt in Beowulf'. Philological Quarterly 58 (1979).

VOLSUNGASAGA
ed. Morris, William & Eiríkr Magnússon. The Story of the Volsungs (Volsungasaga). [English trans only] London: Walter Scott Press, 1888.

VOYLES
Voyles, Joseph B. Early Germanic Grammar: pre-, proto-, and post-Germanic languages. San Diego (California): Academic Press, 1992.

de VRIES
De Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte (2d ed). Pauls Grundriss 12, 2 vols. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1956-57 [2nd edition].

de VRIES (X)
De Vries, Jan. Altnordisches etymolgisches Wörterbuch. Leiden: Brill, 1962 (2nd ed.).

VYASA
Vyása (ed.) Mahábhárata: translated into English with original Sanskrit text. 9 vols. Manmatha Nath Dutt, trans. O.N. Bimali and Ishvar Chandra, eds. Delhi: Parimal Publications, 2001. [originally published (trans. only) as A Prose English Translation of the Mahabharata. Calcutta: HC Dass, 1895-1905.]
-------. The Mahábhárata for the First Time Critically Edited. [Sanskrit only] 24 vols. V. S. Sukthankar, S. K. Belvalkar, & P. L. Vaidya, general eds, with Franklin Edgerton, Raghu Vira, S. K. De, R. N. Dandekar, H. D. Velankar, V. G. Paranjpe, & R. D. Karmarkar, eds. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, 1933-1970. [Electronic text of the Mahabharata [electronic version of the Critical Edition] -- 1st ed.: Muneo Tokunaga, ed. Kyoto: University of Kyoto, 1994 / 2nd rev. ed.: John D. Smith, general ed. with Indu Deshpande, Kirti Sharad Thakar, Pradnya Anant Rayrikar, Samita Vasant Shinde & Shilpa Mulay, eds. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1998-2003. available at http://bombay.oriental.cam.ac.uk/john/mahabharata/statement.html]

see also under Bhagavad-Gita above.

WAINWRIGHT
Wainwright, F.T. 'Æthelflæd Lady of the Mercians'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

WALDERE
ed. Zettersten, Arne. Waldere - edited from Royal Library, Copenhagen Ny Kgl. S. MS. 167b. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1979.

THE WANDERER
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

WANNER
Wanner, Kevin J. 'Warriors, Wyrms, and Wyrd: The Paradoxical Fate of the Germanic Hero/King in Beowulf'. Essays in Medieval Studies 16 (1999). [also available online at: http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol16/wanner.html]

WARNER
Warner, Anthony. 'Elliptical and Impersonal Constructions: evidence for auxiliaries in Old English?' in Evidence for Old English: material and theoretical bases for reconstruction. Fran Colman, ed. Edinburgh Studies in the English Language, 2. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers, 1992.
-------. English auxiliaries: structure and history. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

WATKINS
Watkins, Calvert (ed. & rev.). The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985 [2nd ed., 2000].

WATKINS (X)
Watkins, Calvert. How to Kill a Dragon: aspects of Indo-European poetics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

WENHAM
Wenham, S.J. 'Anatomical Interpretations of Anglo-Saxon Weapon Injuries'. in Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. Sonia Chadwick Hawkes, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1989.

WENTERSDORF
Wentersdorf, Karl P. 'Chaucer and the Lost Tale of Wade'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 65 (1966).
-------. 'Beowulf's Withdrawal from Frisia: a reconsideration'. Studies in Philology 68 (1971).
-------. 'Beowulf's Adventure with Breca'. Studies in Philology 72 (1975).

WESTPHALEN
Westphalen, Tilman. Beowulf 3150-55: Textkritik und Editionsgeschichte. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1967.

WHALLON
Whallon, William. 'The Christianity of Beowulf'. Modern Philology 60 (1962).
-------. 'The Idea of God in Beowulf'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 80 (1965).

WHITELOCK
Whitelock, Dorothy. The Audience of 'Beowulf'. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951.

WHITELOCK (X)
Whitelock, Dorothy. Anglo-Saxon Wills. Cambridge Studies in Legal History, 1930.
-------. 'The Dealings of the Kings of England with Northumbria in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries'. in The Anglo-Saxons: studies in some aspects of their history and culture presented to Bruce Dickins. Peter Clemoes, ed. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1959.

WHITMAN
Whitman, F.H. A Comparative Study of Old English Metre. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

WIDSITH
ed. Chambers, Raymond Wilson. Widsith: a study in Old English Heroic Legend. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912.

THE WIFE'S LAMENT
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

WIKANDER
Wikander, Stig. 'Pándava-sagan och Mahábháratas mystika forutsattningar'. Religion och Bibel 6 (1947).
-------. 'Från Bråvalla till Kurukshetra'. Arkhiv för Nordisk Filologi 75 (1960).
-------. 'Germanische und Indo-Iranische Eschatologie'. Kairos 2 (1960).

WILD
Wild, Friedrich. 'Drachen im Beowulf und andere Drachen. Mit einem Anhang: Drachenfeldzeichen, Drachenwappen und St. Georg'. Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse 238 (1962).

WILEY
Wiley, Raymond A. 'Grimm's Grammar Gains Ground in England, 1832-52'. in The Grimm Brothers and the Germanic Past. Elmer H. Antonsen, ed. with James W. Marchand & Ladislav Zgusta, eds. Amsterdam Studies in the Theory & History of Linguistic Science. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990.

WILLIAMS, D.
Williams, David. Cain and Beowulf: a study in secular allegory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

WILLIAMS, A.
Williams, Alan R. 'Methods of Manufacture of Swords in Medieval Europe: illustrated by the metallography of some examples'. Gladuis 13 (1977).

WILSON
Wilson, David. Anglo-Saxon Paganism. London: Routledge, 1992.

WILSON, D.M.
Wilson, David M. Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100. London: The British Musuem, 1964.
-------. 'Craft and industry'. in The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. David Wilson, ed. London: Methuen, 1976.

WILSON, R.M.
Wilson, R.M. The Lost Literature of Medieval England. London: Methuen, 1952.

WINN
Winn, Shan M.M. Heaven, Heroes, and Happiness: the Indo-European Roots of Western Ideology. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1995.

WOGAN-BROWNE
Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn. 'The Hero in Christian Reception: Ælfric and Heroic Poetry'. in La funzione dell'eroe germanico: storicità, metafora, paradigma (Atti del Convegno internazionale di studio, Roma, 6-8 Maggio 1993). Teresa Pàroli, ed. Rome: Il Calamo, 1995. [reprinted in Old English Literature: critical essays. Roy M. Liuzza, ed. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 2002]

WOLF
Wolf, Kirsten. 'The Influence of the Evangelium Nicodemi on Norse Litreature: a survey'. Mediaeval Studies 55 (1993). [reprinted in The Medieval Gospel of Nichodemus: texts, intertexts, and contexts in Western Europe. Zbigniew Izydorczyk, ed. Tempe (Arizona): Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1997.

WONDERS OF THE EAST
See above under MS. Cotton Vitellius A.xv 3 Prose Texts.

WOODS et al.
Woods, Anthony, Paul Fletcher & Arthur Hughes. Statistics in Language Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

WOOLF
Woolf, Henry Bosley. 'The Name of Beowulf'. Englische Studien 72 (1937).
-------. 'The Naming of Women in Old English Times'. Modern Philology 36 (1938).
-------. Old Germanic Principles of Name-Giving. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1939.

WOOLF, R.
Woolf, Rosemary. 'The Devil in Old English Poetry'. Review of English Studies 4 (1953). [reprinted in Essential Articles for the study of Old English Poetry. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Stanley J. Kahrl, eds. Hamden (Connecticut): Archon, 1968.]

WORMALD
Wormald, Patrick. 'Bede, Beowulf and the Conversion of the Anglo-Saxon Aristocracy'. in Bede and Anglo-Saxon England. Robert T. Farrell, ed. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1978.

WRENN
ed. Wrenn, Charles L. Beowulf with the Finnesburg Fragment. London: Harrap, 1953 (2nd ed. 1958).

WRENN (X)
Wrenn, Charles L. 'Sutton Hoo and Beowulf'. in Mélange de linguistique et de philologie (Fernand Mossé in Memoriam). Paris: Didier, 1959.
-------. 'Two Anglo-Saxon Harps'. in Studies in Old English Literature in Honor of Arthur G. Brodeur. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1963.
-------. 'Some Earliest Anglo-Saxon Cult Symbols'. in Franciplegius: medieval and linguistic studies in honor of Francis Peabody Magoun, Jr. J.B. Bessinger & R.P. Creed, eds. New York: New York University Press, 1965.

WRIGHT
Wright, Joseph (with O.L. Sayce). Grammar of the Gothic Language (and gospel of St.Mark, selections from other gospels, and the second epistle to Timothy). Oxford: Clarendon, 1917 (2nd ed., 1954).

WUEST
Wuest, P. 'Zwei neue Handschriften von Cædmons Hymnus'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum 48 (1906).

WULF & EADWACER
[see under Klink as an Exeter Book 'Elegy']

WULFSTAN
Wulfstan. The Homilies of Wulfstan. Dorothy Bethurum, ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1957.

WYATT & CHAMBERS
ed. Chambers, R.W. with A.J. Wyatt. Beowulf and the Finnsburg Fragment. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 1932 (rev. ed.)

YEAGER
Yeager, Robert F. 'Teaching Beowulf in Old English to Undergraduates - V.' in Approaches to Teaching Beowulf. Jess B. Bessinger, Jr. & Robert F. Yeager, eds. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1984.

ZANDVOORT
Zandvoort, R.W. '"Pregnant" one'. English Studies 22 (1940).

ZEKI VALIDI
Zeki Validi, A. 'Die Schweter der Germanen, nach arabischen Berichten des 9-11. Jahrhunderts'. Zeitschrift des deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 40 (1936).

ZETTERSTEN
Zettersten, Arne, ed. see above under Waldere.

ZIEGLER
Ziegler, Michelle. 'The Politics of Exile in Early Northumbria'. Ms., Southwestern Illinois College/The Heroic Age 2 (1999). [online text available here]
-------. 'Oswald and the Irish'. Ms., Southwestern Illinois College/The Heroic Age 4 (2001). [online text available here]

ZOËGA
Zoëga, Geir T. A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.

ZUPITZA
ed. Zupitza, Julius (with Norman Davis). Beowulf: reproduced in facsimile from the unique manuscript British Museum MS. Cotton Vitellius A. xv with a transliteration and notes by Julius Zupitza. new reproduction & intro. by Norman Davis. Early English Text Society, 245 (1st ed.=EETS 77). London: Early English Text Society, 1959 (2nd ed.)

ZUPITZA (X)
Zupitza, Julius. 'Über den Hymnus Cädmons'. Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum 22 (1878).