Beowulf on Steorarume

Old English Glossary
[and the Finnesburh Fragment]

compiled by
(based loosely on the Glossary from Klaeber (1950), with substantial additions and alterations)

click on the desired letter heading here >

The order of words is alphabetical, with æ following az and þ/ð following t; the verbal prefix ge- is disregarded in the arrangement.

When no form of a word is given before a reference, the head-word is to be supplied (the nom. sing. of nouns and the nom. sing. masc. of adjectives being understood unless indicated otherwise).

[F. #] refers to the Finnesburh Fragment

Fount Styles

bold = OE headword
italics= modern English definition

underscoring = descendent of OE headword, or those adopted from cognate languages
(underscoring inside round brackets) = descendent of OE headword, but modern reflex has undergone significant change in meaning
"underscoring in double inverted commas" = descendent of OE headword is obscure or dialectical

...[square brackets following body of entry] = related OE words, cognates in other languages and related words in modern English

[line number in square bracket] = reference to restored or emended form or word, i.e. not present in or altered from the MS reading

nb.: references to Watkins and Pokorny followed by numbers & roots (e.g., [Watkins 61:pa9wr/Pokorny peuór 828]), refers to the pg. number and entry heading in Watkins' & Pokorny's Indo-European dictionaries of roots

Misc. diacritic markings used in this glossary
(occurring in the body of an entry [i.e., not in the head of an entry])

* = unattested/reconstructed word/form
´(e.g., á, é, etc.) = long vowel (e.g., in phonological notation /a:/, /e:/, etc.)
9 = schwa-vowel (i.e. reduced, unstressed vowel, e.g. like the pronunciation of the a of modern English about)
h1, h2, h3 = Indo-European reconstructed 'laryngeal' consonants (de Saussure's coefficients sonantiques) [the non-colouring, a-colouring, o-colouring laryngeals, resp.]
k`, g`, etc. = palatalised phone(me)
ç = non-retroflex Skt. or Hit. sh- (often indicated elsewhere by an s supramarked with \/ or /
underlining (e.g. Hit. pahhur) = various under-dotting, under-scoring, etc. of phonetic symbols not easily represented in standard computer character sets

< / fr. = from (e.g., MnE. fire < OE. fýr = 'modern English "fire" descends from Old English "fýr"')
> = becomes (e.g., OE. fýr > MnE. fire = 'Old English "fýr" becomes modern English "fire"')


~ = refers to word form cited before
F. = references to words in the Finnsburh Fragment
square and triangular brackets are used to indicate editorial emendations to cited forms

* (preceding the head-word) = hypothesised citation form of a word which is otherwise unattested
* (following the head-word) = words (or meanings) found only in poetry
** = words not found outside of Beowulf (in either poetry or prose)
(*) = word is incidentally found in prose (in Glosses or elsewhere) or when closely related words occur in prose
(**) = closely related words do occur in other poetical texts or prose
(**)+ = word is not found in poetry outside of Beowulf, but does occur elsewhere in prose
(**)(+) = word is found elsewhere in prose (but not poetry), but its usage in prose appears exceptional

note: *s in the body of an entry refer to unattested/reconstructed words/forms

adj. = adjective
adv. = adverb
prep. = preposition
conj. = conjunction
vb. = verb (/ verbal form)
negat. = negation
pron. = pronoun
pers. = personal
poss. = possessive
interj. = interjection
subst. = substantive
dem. /demon. = demonstrative
part. = particle
correl. = correlative
rel. / relat. = relative

roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, &c.) = class of strong/ablaut verbs
w1, w2, &c. = class of weak verbs
redup. = reduplicating verbal class
pret-pres. = preterite-present verbal class
anv. = anomalous verbs

tr./ trans. = transitive
intr./ intrans. = intransitive
impers. = impersonal (verb)
abs. = absolutive construction

pres. = present (tense)
pret. = preterite (past tense)
pp. = past participle
pres. ptc. = present participle
pluperf. = pluperfect (tense)
ger. = gerund
ind. = indicative (mood) [ordinary statements]
subj./subjunct. = subjunctive (mood) [hypothetical statements]
opt. = optative (mood) [expressing an option, wish or hope]
imp. = imperative (mood) [command]
inf. = infinitive

sg./pl. = singular/plural (number)
1,2,3 = first, second third person

nom. = nominative
acc. = accusative
instr. = instrumental
dat. = dative
gen. = genitive
voc. = vocative

part. = partitive
collect. = collective

adv. = adverb

m. = masculine (noun unless designated otherwise by 'adj.')
f. = feminine
n. = neuter
adj. = adjective (word, marked with m., f. or n., is a noun unless marked as adj.)
wk. = weak declension
indecl. = indeclinable
def. = definite
indef. = indefinite
-a, -i, -ja, &c. = stems for noun/adj. classes
-c. = consonantal-stem noun

n. / nom. = nominative
a. / acc. = accusative
i. / instr. = instrumental
d. / dat. = dative
g. / gen. = genitive

s. / sg. = singular
p. / pl. = plural

pron. = pronoun
pers. = personal
poss. = possessive
rel. / relat. = relative
dem. / demon. = demonstrative
subst. = substantive
num. = numeral
comp. = comparative
supl. = superlative
correl. = correlative

Cpd(s). = compound form(s)
ref. = referring, or reference (to)
w/ = with
cp. = compare (with)
collect. = collective
dial. = dialectal
obs. = obsolete
poet.= poetical use
arch. = archaic
fr. = from

pers. = person

(Ger. = Germanic)
Scand. = Scandinavian

Alb. = Albanian
Amer. = American English
Arm. = Armenian
Assyr. = Assyrian
Av. = Avestan
Bai. = Bavarian (German) [=bairisch]
Bang. = Bangani*
Brn. = Bréton (modern)
Byz. = Byzantine (= Middle Greek)
Dan. = (modern) Danish
Du. / Dut. = Dutch
Fr. = French
Frank. = Frankish
Gaul. = Gaulish
Ger. = (modern standard High) German
Gmc. = (Proto)-Germanic
Go. = Gothic
Gr. / Grk. = (ancient) Greek
Gyp. = Romany (Gypsy)
Hit. = Hittite
Hn. = Hindi[/Hindustani/Hindusthani]
IE. = (Proto-)Indo-European
Ice. / Icel. = Icelandic
Ir. = Irish
It. / Ital. = Italian
L./Lat. = Latin
LG. = Low German ('niederdeutsch')
LL. = Late Latin
Lett. = Lettic
Lith. = Lithuanian
Ltv. = Latvian
Luv. = Luvian
MDu. = Middle Dutch
ME. = Middle English
MHG. = Middle High German
MIr. = Middle Irish
ML. = Mediaeval Latin
MLG. = Middle Low German ('niederdeutsch')
MnE. / NE. = Modern/New English
MWe. = Middle Welsh
NE. / MnE. = Modern/New English
Nep. = Nepali
Nor. / Norw. = (modern) Norwegian
North. = (English) of the North (of England)
O.Dan. = Old Danish
OCS. = Old Church Slavic
OE. = Old English (Anglo-Saxon)
OFr. = Old French
OFris. = Old Frisian
OHG. = Old High German
O.Ice. = Old Icelandic
O.Ir. = Old Irish
ON. = Old Norse
O.Pruss. = Old Prussian
OS. = Old Saxon
O.Sw. = Old Swedish
Pa. = Pali
Pk. = Prakrit (Middle Indic)
Per. = (Old) Persian
Port. = Portuguese
Prov. = Provençal (French)
Rum. = Rumanian
Russ. = Russian
Sc. = Scottish (English)
SCr. = Serbo-Croatian
Sk. / Skt. = Sanskrit
Slav. = Slavic
Sp. / Span. = Spanish
Sw. = (modern) Swedish
Toch.-A = Tocharian A
Toch.-B = Tocharian B
Ved. = Vedic (Sanskrit)
W. / We. = Welsh
Yid. = Yiddish

*-note: for Bangani forms, O represents cardinal vowel 6 (IPA symbol = backwards 'c'), E represents cardinal vowel 3 (IPA Greek epsilon).

= from
> = becomes
* = unattested/reconstructed word/form

nb.: references to Watkins and Pokorny followed by numbers & roots (e.g., [Watkins 61:pa9wr/Pokorny peuór 828]), refers to the pg. number and entry heading in Watkins' & Pokorny's Indo-European dictionaries of roots

Abbi = Abbi, Anvita. 'Debate on Archaism of some select Bangani words'. Indian Linguistics 58(1997):1-14.

Adams = Adams, Douglas Q. Tocharian Historical Phonology and Morphology. New Haven (Connecticut): American Oriental Society, 1988.

Bailey & Ross = Bailey, H.W. & A.S.C. Ross. 'Path'. Transactions of the Philological Society 1961: 107ff.

Bammesberger = Bammesberger, Alfred. Beiträge zu einem etymologischen Wörterbuch des Altenglischen: Berichtigungen und Nachträge zum Altenglischen etymologischen Wörterbuch von Ferdinand Holthausen. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, 1979.

Barney = Barney, Stephen A. Word-Hoard. New Haven (Connecticut): Yale University Press, 1977.

Birkhan = Birkhan, H. Germanen und Kelten bis zum Ausgang der Römerzeit. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1970.

Bosworth-Toller (/ B.-T.) = Bosworth, Joseph and T. Northcote Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. London: Oxford UP, 1898/1921.

Brøndel = Brøndel, V. 'Mots "scythes" en nordique primitif'. Acta Philologica Scandinavica 3 (1928): 1ff.

Buck = Buck, Carl D. A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949.

Collinder = Collinder, Björn. Beowulf. [Swedish translation] Stockholm: Natur och Kultur, 1954.

Dunlapp = Dunlapp, A.R. 'Behen and behind'. American Speech 37 (1962).

Fowler = Fowler, Henry Watson with Sir Ernest Gowers. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 [2nd rev. ed.; 1st ed., 1926].

Frings = Frings, T. 'Paida'. Paul und Braunes Beiträge 77 (1955): 221ff.

Gelling = Gelling, Margaret. 'The landscape of Beowulf'. Anglo-Saxon England 31(2002):7-11.

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